Table 1

Distribution of dietary intake of phytoestrogens (μg/day) among 6,584 mothers of control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.*

Phytoestrogen

Mean ± SD

Median (Interquartile range)


Total Isoflavones

58.5 ± 35.0

49.1 (35.2, 72.2)

Genistein

23.7 ± 13.7

20.3 (14.4, 29.5)

Biochanin A

15.2 ± 9.1

13.1 (9.1, 18.8)

Daidzein

12.9 ± 8.9

10.4 (7.0, 16.0)

Glycetin

9.7 ± 7.5

7.5 (5.1, 11.8)

Formononetin

5.7 ± 3.2

5.0 (3.5, 7.1)

Total Lignans

139.0 ± 98.2

114.2 (75.6, 173.4)

Secoisolariciresinol

117.3 ± 87.2

94.8 (61.1, 146.9)

Matairesinol

22.4 ± 16.9

18.0 (12.4, 27.0)

Coumestrol

10.0 ± 6.6

8.5 (5.4, 12.7)

Total Phytoestrogens

208.9 ± 133.6

174.8 (121.2, 256.5)


* Does not include intake from coffee or tea or alcoholic beverages.

Carmichael et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:105   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-105

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