Table 3

Percent contribution of food groups to intake of phytoestrogens, overall and by race-ethnicity.**

All women (n = 6,583)

White (n = 3,959)

Black (n = 739)

Hispanic (n = 1446)

Other (n = 412)


    Total Phytoestrogens

Vegetables

31

34

33

25

32

Fruit

29

26

32

31

32

Dairy

13

16

12

10

11

Legumes

10

5

3

20

10

Grains

7

7

7

7

7

Cereal

6

8

7

5

5

Meat

4

4

5

3

3

    Isoflavones

Vegetables

11

13

13

8

11

Fruit

21

17

25

25

26

Dairy

33

40

33

24

30

Legumes

14

7

4

26

14

Grains

8

9

8

7

9

Cereal

8

9

11

7

6

Meat

4

5

6

3

4

    Lignans

Vegetables

40

44

43

33

41

Fruit

29

27

32

32

32

Dairy

5

7

5

4

5

Legumes

10

5

3

19

10

Grains

7

7

7

7

6

Cereal

6

8

6

4

4

Meat

4

4

4

3

3

    Coumestrol

Vegetables

9

10

9

7

9

Fruit

55

52

61

58

60

Dairy

18

22

14

14

15

Legumes

3

1

1

5

3

Grains

7

6

6

7

7

Cereal

4

3

4

5

3

Meat

5

6

5

4

4


* Intake at least once per month during the year before pregnancy.

** Numbers may not add to 100% due to rounding.

Carmichael et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:105   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-105

Open Data