Table 4

Food items (and their percent contribution) that were the top contributors to intake of phytoestrogens, overall and by race-ethnicity.

All women (n = 6,584)

White (n = 3,959)

Black (n = 739)

Hispanic (n = 1,446)

Other (n = 412)


    Total Phytoestrogens*

Oranges (10)

Oranges (7)*

Oranges (12)

Refried Beans (14)

Oranges (12)

Refried Beans (7)

Broccoli (7)

Yams or Sweet Potatoes (8)

Oranges (12)

Broccoli (6)

Broccoli (6)

Cereals (7)

Broccoli (6)

Avocado or Guacamole (5)

Refried Beans (6)

Cereals (6)

Skim or Low Fat Milk (7)

Cereal (6)

Broccoli (5)

Carrots, cooked (5)

Carrots, raw (5)

Carrots, Raw (6)

Whole Milk (5)

Beans or lentils, baked or dry (4)

Orange juice (4)

    Isoflavones*

Oranges (11)

Skim or low fat milk (17)

Whole milk (15)

Refried Beans (18)

Oranges (15)

Skim or low fat milk (11)

Oranges (8)

Oranges (14)

Oranges (14)

Whole milk (10)

Whole Milk (10)

Cereals (7)

Cereal (9)

Whole milk (12)

Skim or low fat milk (9)

Refried Beans (8)

Whole milk (7)

Skim or low fat milk (5)

Cereals (6)

Refried Beans (7)

Cereal (7)

Yogurt (4)

String beans (4)

Beans or lentils, baked or dried (46)

Cereal (6)

    Lignans*

Broccoli (8)

Broccoli (10)

Yams or sweet potatoes (12)

Refried Beans (14)

Oranges (10)

Oranges (8)

Carrots, raw (8)

Oranges (11)

Oranges (10)

Broccoli (9)

Carrots, raw (7)

Cereals (7)

Broccoli (9)

Broccoli (6)

Carrots, cooked (7)

Refried Beans (6)

Oranges (6)

Peaches, apricots, plums, or nectarines (7)

Avocado or guacamole (6)

Yams or sweet potatoes (6)

Carrots, cooked (6)

Other fruits, fresh, frozen, or canned (6)

Cereal (6)

Peaches, apricots, plums, or nectarines (6)

Peaches, apricots, plums, or nectarines (6)

    Coumestrol*

Orange Juice (39)

Orange juice (39)

Orange juice (43)

Orange juice (37)

Orange juice (41)

Oranges (11)

Skim or low fat milk (13)

Oranges (13)

Oranges (15)

Oranges (14)

Skim or low fat milk (8)

Oranges (8)

Whole milk (7)

Whole milk (6)

Skim or low fat milk (6)

Whole Milk (5)

Broccoli (4)

Cereal (4)

Cereal (5)

Whole milk (5)

Broccoli (4)

White bread, including pita bread (3)

Broccoli (4)

Refried Beans (4)

Broccoli (4)


* Percentage contribution of each food item to total intake of each phytoestrogen is included in parentheses; numbers may not add to 100% due to rounding

** Intake at least once per month during the year before pregnancy.

Carmichael et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:105   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-105

Open Data