Table 5

Association of maternal characteristics with total phytoestrogen intake among 6,441 mothers of control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

Percent of all subjects*

No. in lowest quartile (n = 1,613)

No. in middle two quartiles (Reference, n = 3,226)

No. in highest quartile (n = 1,602)

AOR (95% CI) for lowest versus middle quartiles**

AOR (95% CI) for highest versus middle quartiles**


    Maternal race-ethnicity

White, non-Hispanic

61%

1176

2183

541

Reference

Reference

Black, non-Hispanic

11%

234

330

170

1.3 (1.1, 1.6)

1.4 (1.1, 1.8)

Hispanic

22%

140

521

756

0.3 (0.3, 0.4)

6.0 (4.9, 7.3)

Other

6%

63

192

135

0.5 (0.3, 0.7)

2.9 (2.2, 3.8)

    Maternal education

< High school

16%

188

405

469

Reference

Reference

High school

24%

449

719

409

1.1 (0.9, 1.4)

0.9 (0.7, 1.1)

> High school

59%

976

2102

724

0.7 (0.6, 0.9)

1.0 (0.8, 1.3)

    Maternal age

< 25 years

33%

587

951

592

1.7 (1.4, 2.0)

0.7 (0.6, 0.8)

25-34 years

53%

848

1758

792

Reference

Reference

35+ years

14%

178

517

218

0.5 (0.4, 0.6)

1.6 (1.3, 2.0)

    Folic acid-containing supplement intake

None

5%

66

148

93

Reference

Reference

Began in 3 mo. before pregnancy

34%

527

1221

433

0.7 (0.5, 1.1)

1.9 (1.3, 2.8)

Began in first trimester

54%

912

1647

892

0.9 (0.6, 1.3)

1.5 (1.0, 2.1)

Began after first trimester

8%

108

210

184

1.0 (0.6, 1.5)

1.4 (0.9, 2.1)


* Numbers may not add to 100% due to rounding.

**Odds ratios are adjusted for all other variables included in the table, as well as energy intake (kcals).

Carmichael et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:105   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-105

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