Ghrelin kinetics after solid (left) and liquid (right) meals. Data is expressed as difference vs basal level before beverage and meal (mean ± SE). Time 0 was considered as time after beverage intake. B-CO2: beverage without carbon dioxide; B+CO2: beverage with carbon dioxide. No significant differences were found by means of the ANOVA analysis between kinetic values between beverages. However, the area under curve analysis (see Table 4) showed a lower ghrelin decrease in B-CO2 with respects to water and B+CO2, which proved to be significant (p < 0.05) during the solid meal.
Cuomo et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:114 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-114