Table 2

Characteristics of India Health Study participants who completed Diet and Medical Histories

Delhi

Trivandrum

Mumbai

Characteristic

n = 824

n = 2,247

n = 743


Age distribution, yrs

35 to 39

32

21

16

40 to 49

31

33

31

50 to 59

23

29

31

60 to 69

14

17

22

Female,%

53

50

52

Highest education attained,%

Middle school

34

44

38

Secondary school

27

46

56

University

39

10

5

Married,%

94

93

81

Household monthly income, INR,%

<5,000

6

69

36

5,000-10,000

18

27

45

>10,000

76

4

19

Primary religion,%

Hindu

77

34

57

Muslim

3

34

<1

Christian

<1

32

5

Other (Sikh, Buddhist, Jain)

20

<1

38

History of tobacco use

None

81

73

50

Smokeless (chewing, snuff, betel)

3

5

44

Smoke (cigarettes, bidi, hukka)

16

22

6

History of alcohol use

No

79

85

79

Yes

21

16

21

Physical activity, MET-hr/wk*

42.8 (45.6)

153.2 (107.9)

179.1 (141.5)

Obesity,%

56

49

46

Abdominal adiposity§,%

92

90

86

Dyslipidemia¥,%

56

-

-

Diabetes,%

18

28

10

Medical history

10

17

10

Fasting plasma glucose test ≥ 126 mg/dl

8

11

-

Hypertension,%

47

51

46

Medical history

18

16

20

SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg

29

35

26

Dietary intake,% of total energy*

Fat

41.1 (4.9)

23.3 (5.8)

39.7 (5.3)

Carbohydrate

48.2 (5.4)

60.5 (6.2)

47.3 (5.4)

Protein

12.1 (1.6)

15.0 (2.2)

13.7 (2.1)


Abbreviations: INR, Indian Rupee; MET, metabolic equivalents of task

All estimates exclude missing data.

* Presented as mean and standard deviation (SD)

Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2; WHO universal cutpoint for overweight and suggested Asian-specific cut-point for obesity

§ Waist-to-hip ratio ≥ 0.90 cm in males or 0.80 cm in females

¥ HDL < 40 mg/dl in males or 50 mg/dl in females, triglycerides > 200 mg/dl, total cholesterol to HDL ratio ≥ 5

∫ Positive medical history (self-report) with current medication use or fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl

≠ Positive medical history (self-report) with current medication use or SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg

Daniel et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:12   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-12

Open Data