Table 1

Distribution of cases and controls stratified by sex among selected risk factors in a case-control study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Iran1

Variable

Male

Female

P-value2


Cases

Control

Cases

Control



Participants, n

18 (32.1)

38 (67.9)

29(33.3)

58(66.7)

Age3, year

60.0(54.75-67.00)

60.0 (54.25-67.00)

57.0(50.00-70.50)

58.0 (48.75-72.25)

0.17

≤58

8(44.4)

17(44.7)

17(58.6)

32(55.2)

>58

10(55.6)

21(55.3)

12(41.4)

26(44.8)

Education, year

Illiterate

14(77.8)

25(65.8)

28(96.6)

55(94.8)

<0.001

Literate

4(22.2)

13(34.2)

1(3.4)

3(5.2)

Monthly family income, US $

<300

15 (83.3)

33 (86.8)

28 (96.6)

53 (91.4)

0.14

≥300

3 (16.7)

5(13.2)

1 (3.4)

5 (8.6)

Place of residence

Rural

11(61.1)

20(52.6)

22(75.9)

28(48.3)*

0.80

Urban

7(38.9)

18(47.4)

7(24.1)

30(51.7)*

Smoking history

Never smoker

5(27.8)

17(44.7)

23(79.3)

51(87.9)

<0.001

Ex-smoker, pack year < 10

3(16.7)

3(7.9)

3(10.3)

4(6.9)

Ex-smoker, pack year≥10

1(5.5)

11(28.9)

3(10.3)

1(1.7)

Current smoker, pack year < 20

3(16.7)

4(10.5)

0(0.0)

1(1.7)

Current smoker, pack year ≥20

6(33.3)

3(7.9)

0(0.0)

1(1.7)

Having symptoms of GERD4

6(33.3)

6(15.8)

10(34.5)

3(5.2)*

0.31

Familial cancer history

1(5.6)

0(0.0)

3(10.3)

0(0.0)*

0.48

Physical activity

Light

13(72.2)

21(55.3)*

16(75.9)

35(60.4)*

0.001

Heavy

5(27.8)

17(44.7)*

7(24.1)

23(39.6)*

BMI, kg/m2

19.9(3.1)5

24.8(4.0)*

20.8(3.3)

25.7(4.3)*

0.01

≤24.9

16(88.9)

20(52.6)*

24(82.8)

27(46.6)

>24.9

2(11.1)

18(47.4)*

5(17.2)

31(53.4)

NSAIDs use

Aspirin

2(11.2)

0(0.0)

1(5.6)

0(0.0)

0.63

Non-aspirin

3(7.9)

0(0.0)

1(3.4)

0(0.0)

Food and beverage temperature

Hot

15(83.3)

6(15.8)*

17(58.6)

9(15.5)*

0.03

Warm/cold

3(16.7)

32(84.2)*

12(41.4)

49(84.5)*

Cooking method

Fried/barbecued

8(44.4)

3(7.9)*

6(20.7)

3(5.2)*

0.14

Boiled

7(38.9)

21(55.3)*

10(34.5)

49(84.5)*

Both

3(16.7)

14(36.8)*

13(44.8)

6(10.3)*


GERD: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease; BMI: Body mass index; NSAIDs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

*Statistically significant between case and control groups (p < 0.05)

1Values are n (%), unless otherwise noted

2P-values were estimated using chi-square statistics, Fishers' exact test or independent t-test for the difference between genders

3Median (interquartile range (IQR))

4Patients who present with the typical GERD symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation

5Mean (SD)

Jessri et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:137   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-137

Open Data