Table 2

Relationship between energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a case-control study in Iran

Macronutrients

Tertiles of Intake1 OR (95%CI)


Model 12

Model 23



Tertile15

Tertile2

Tertile3

P-trend6

Tertile 14

Tertile 2

Tertile 3

P-trend5

Total energy, Kcal Number

1.00 (46)

0.80 (0.24-2.13) (48)

1.11 (0.25-1.98) (49)

0.52

1.00

0.62 (0.03-2.65)

1.23 (0.86-2.14)

0.29

Total fat, g Number

1.00 (46)

1.23 (1.04-2.95) (46)

1.94(1.05-3.28) (51)

0.02

1.00

1.11 (0.80-2.67)

1.48 (1.09-3.04)

0.005

SFA, g Number

1.00 (48)

1.70 (1.21-4.93) (47)

3.52 (1.10-3.89) (48)

0.01

1.00

1.32 (1.20-2.93)

2.88 (1.15-3.08)

0.01

PUFA, g Number

1.00 (47)

2.83 (0.34-3.60) (48)

0.71 (0.13-1.62) (48)

0.98

1.00

1.19 (0.42-2.57)

0.98 (0.31-2.64)

0.14

MUFA, g Number

1.00 (48)

1.39 (0.95 -2.79) (47)

1.39 (0.29-2.16) (48)

0.23

1.00

0.97 (0.15-1.74)

1.19 (0.42-2.75)

0.81

(n-3)fatty acids, g Number

1.00 (48)

0.42 (0.21-0.75) (47)

0.51 (0.08-0.90) (48)

0.01

1.00

0.86 (0.16-0.97)

0.32 (0.07-0.84)

<0.001

Dietary fiber, g Number

1.00 (48)

0.72 (0.31-2.18) (47)

0.46 (0.01-0.88) (48)

<0.001

1.00

0.71 (0.02-2.03)

0.29 (0.13-0.76)

0.02

Carbohydrate, g Number

1.00 (46)

0.70 (0.31-2.93) (46)

0.17 (0.06-0.92) (51)

0.04

1.00

0.79 (0.32-1.56)

0.22 (0.05-0.84)

<0.001

Protein, g Number

1.00 (48)

1.25 (0.59-2.74) (48)

1.61 (1.49-4.13) (47)

<0.02

1.00

1.13 (0.54-1.64)

1.93 (0.60-3.18)

0.52

Cholesterol, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.92 (0.09-1.39) (49)

3.71(1.49-2.60) (47)

<0.001

1.00

0.68 (0.22-1.73)

1.53 (1.41-4.13)

<0.001

Vegetable Oil, g6 Number

1.00 (47)

0.59 (0.21-3.58) (47)

0.95 (0.16-2.24) (49)

0.87

1.00

1.25 (0.35-1.93)

1.44 (0.08-2.23)

0.61

Discretionary calorie, % total energy intake7 Number

1.00 (48)

1.68 (1.07-3.95) (48)

2.33(1.58-2.90) (47)

<0.001

1.00

1.17 (1.02-2.65)

1.51 (1.06-3.84)

0.002


OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence interval; SFA: Saturated fatty acid; PUFA: Poly unsaturated fatty acid; MUFA: Mono unsaturated fatty acid

1Nutrient intakes are adjusted for energy intake using the residual method [56]

2Base model; adjusted for age (years) and sex (male/female)

3Fully-adjusted model; adjusted for age (years), sex (male/female), gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms (yes/no), body mass index (≤24.9, >24.9 kg/m2), smoking status (never/former/current), smoking intensity and duration (<20, ≥20 pack-years), physical activity (MET) (light/heavy), and education level (illiterate, literate)

4Reference category

5The P-value for trend was calculated using the linear regression coefficient for the tertiles of macronutrient intake

6Described as fat from vegetable oil, fish, nuts and seeds sources

7Described as the energy derived from solid fat and added sugar

Jessri et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:137   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-137

Open Data