Table 3

Relationship between energy-adjusted micronutrients intakes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a case-control study in Iran1

Micronutrients

Tertiles of Intake2 OR (95%CI)


Model 13

Model 24



Tertile16

Tertile2

Tertile3

P-trend7

Tertile 15

Tertile 2

Tertile 3

P-trend6

Vitamin A, RAE Number

1.00 (48)

0.82 (0.19-1.50) (49)

0.93 (0.50-2.86) (46)

0.94

1.00

0.83 (0.09-1.86)

0.72 (0.38-2.12)

0.53

β-carotene, μg Number

1.00 (48)

1.59 (0.32-2.86) (47)

1.29 (0.51-3.65) (48)

0.71

1.00

1.21 (0.13-2.68)

1.07 (0.81-2.13)

0.14

Vitamin D, μg Number

1.00 (48)

1.10 (0.62-1.75) (47)

0.28 (0.17-0.89) (48)

<0.001

1.00

0.84 (0.39-2.74)

0.28 (0.02-0.91)

<0.001

Vitamin E, mg TE Number

1.00 (47)

0.19 (0.03-0.94) (48)

0.07 (0.01-0.63) (48)

<0.001

1.00

0.32 (0.12-0.91)

0.11 (0.03-0.74)

<0.001

α-tocopherol, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.61 (0.12-0.95) (48)

0.26 (0.09-0.74) (48)

<0.001

1.00

0.86 (0.14-1.17)

0.47 (0.02-1.85)

0.31

Thiamine, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.57(0.21-2.73) (48)

0.41 (0.05-0.89) (48)

0.04

1.00

0.85 (0.61-1.58)

0.34 (0.06-2.85)

0.97

Riboflavin, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.90 (0.22-1.85) (48)

0.33 (0.15-0.87) (48)

<0.001

1.00

1.90 (0.17-2.12)

0.22 (0.07-0.86)

0.01

Niacin, mg Number

1.00 (48)

0.37 (0.06-2.10) (47)

0.48 (0.10-1.69) (48)

0.17

1.00

0.86 (0.05-2.63)

0.38 (0.15-1.82)

0.09

Panthothenic acid, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.55 (0.07-2.16) (48)

0.86 (0.29-1.11) (48)

0.50

1.00

0.86 (0.20-1.18)

0.49 (0.35-2.08)

0.74

Vitamin B6, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.48 (0.15-0.79) (47)

0.11(0.08-0.93) (49)

<0.001

1.00

0.76 (0.12-2.33)

0.17 (0.05-0.91)

0.003

Folate, μg Number

1.00 (48)

0.26 (0.07-0.90) (47)

0.08 (0.01-0.92) (48)

<0.001

1.00

0.32 (0.01-0.57)

0.08 (0.02-0.90)

<0.001

Vitamin B12, μg Number

1.00 (47)

0.58(0.19-1.83) (49)

1.02 (0.39-2.12) (47)

0.14

1.00

0.87 (0.10-2.61)

1.33 (0.60-3.03)

0.15

Vitamin C, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.69 (0.13-0.75) (49)

0.39 (0.11-0.84) (48)

0.02

1.00

0.76 (0.09-2.43)

0.37 (0.11-0.93)

0.02

Iron, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.51 (0.07-0.93) (49)

0.69 (0.17-2.60) (47)

0.66

1.00

0.72 (0.35-1.63)

0.61 (0.22-2.48)

0.13

Calcium, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.27(0.12-0.87) (49)

0.17 (0.03-0.94) (47)

<0.001

1.00

0.51 (0.17-1.82)

0.49 (0.15-0.87)

0.03

Phosphorous, mg Number

1.00 (48)

1.09 (0.62-3.29) (47)

0.77 (0.01-2.56) (48)

0.62

1.00

1.35 (0.11-2.95)

1.31 (0.36-2.60)

0.92

Potassium, mg Number

1.00 (48)

0.51 (0.07-1.98) (47)

0.24 (0.11-0.78) (48)

0.03

1.00

0.51 (0.18-2.93)

0.23 (0.03-1.76)

0.44

Sodium, mg Number

1.00 (48)

1.13 (0.22-2.07) (47)

1.52 (1.17-3.44) (48)

<0.001

1.00

1.17 (1.05-2.15)

1.49 (1.12-2.89)

<0.001

Zinc, mg Number

1.00 (47)

0.79 (0.16-0.73) (48)

0.49 (0.11-0.85) (48)

0.01

1.00

1.39 (0.58-2.17)

0.73 (0.12-0.98)

0.01

Methionine, g Number

1.00 (47)

0.85 (0.09-2.34) (48)

0.63 (0.09-0.96) (48)

<0.001

1.00

0.79 (0.06-1.98)

0.29 (0.13-0.95)

0.004

Selenium, μg Number

1.00 (47)

0.32 (0.12-0.94) (48)

0.12 (0.04-0.69) (48)

0.03

1.00

0.63 (0.12-0.91)

0.15 (0.01-0.76)

<0.001


OR: Odds ratio; CI: Confidence interval; RAE = Retinol Activity Equivalents; TE= Tocopherol Equivalents

1Only micronutrients from food sources are considered.

2Nutrient intakes are adjusted for energy intake using the residual method [56]

3Base model; adjusted for age (years) and sex (male/female)

4Fully-adjusted model; adjusted for age (years), sex (male/female), gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms (yes/no), body mass index (≤24.9, >24.9 kg/m2), smoking status (never/former/current), smoking intensity and duration (<20, ≥20 pack-years), physical activity (MET) (light/heavy), and education level (illiterate, literate).

5Reference category

6The P-value for trend was calculated using the linear regression coefficient for the tertiles of micronutrient intake

Jessri et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:137   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-137

Open Data