Table 1

Baseline characteristics and complications prior to the beginning of the study.

Breastfed

(n = 6)

Group A

(n = 8)

Group B

(n = 12)

Group C

(n = 12)


Characteristics of the newborns


Born in the hospital

5

8

11

9


Male gender

4

2

5

9


Cesarean section

4

7

11

8


1-min Apgar ≤4

1

3

2

2


5-min Apgar ≤8

3

4

2

2


Resuscitation (endotracheal intubation)

0

4

1

3


Prenatal corticosteroids

4

8

10

9


Complications of the newborns


Respiratory distress syndrome

4

5

3

8


Mechanical ventilation

3

5

2

7


Patent ductus arteriosus

1

4

1

3


Sepsis

2

1

3

3


Necrotizing enterocolitis

2

0

0

0


Intraventricular hemorrhage

2

1

1

0


Parenteral nutrition > 7 days

2

3

3

3


Costa-Orvay et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:140   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-140

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