Table 4

The effect of probiotic treatment on the number of, duration of use, severity and combined load of medications usage

Effect of probiotic

relative to placebo

(mean; 99% CI)


Probiotic

group

(mean ± SD)

Placebo

group

(mean ± SD)

Ratio

Difference

Qualitative

inference


Males

Number of medication episodes

0.37 ± 0.72

1.26 ± 1.90

0.29;

0.04 to 0.89

Very likely ↓

Total days of medications

5.0 ± 20.8

7.2 ± 14.8

0.70;

0.01 to 2.3

Unclear

Mean # of medications per episode

1.14 ± 0.24

1.29 ± 0.44

-0.15;

-0.57 to 0.24

Possibly trivial

Total # of medications

5.2 ± 20.8

9.1 ± 17.3

0.57;

0.01 to 3.1

Unclear

Females

Number of medication episodes

1.98 ± 2.63

1.08 ± 1.32

1.83;

0.38 to 6.5

Possible ↑

Total days of medications

10.7 ± 18.2

5.8 ± 7.9

1.86;

0.31 to 8.5

Likely ↑

Mean # of medications per episode

1.15 ± 0.24

1.53 ± 0.99

-0.39;

-1.32 to 0.24

Possible ↓

Total # of medications

12.7 ± 20.9

7.4 ± 10.4

1.70;

0.27 to 7.8

Possible ↑


SD, standard deviation; CI, confidence interval.

Smallest clinically important values for assessing effects qualitatively: ratios, ×/÷1.20; differences, ± 0.5.

West et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:30   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-30

Open Data