Table 3

Mean dietary diversity score (DDS) and percentage adults having consumed an item from the food groups, by Living Standard Measure, age and gender

Living Standard Measure

Age category

Gender

RSA

Low

Medium

3: High

16-24 years

25-34 years

35-49 years

50+ years

Male

Female

All

Sample sizec

585

1320

1219

648

779

1001

859

1336

1951

3287

Mean DDS

2.93 [C]

3.84 [B]

4.72 [A]

3.93

3.92

4.09

4.08

4.01

4.02

4.02

(95% CIa)

2.81 - 3.05

3.76 - 3.93

4.64 - 4.80

3.82 - 4.05

3.82 - 4.02

3.98 - 4.19

3.98 - 4.19

3.92 - 4.09

3.95 - 4.10

3.96 - 4.07


Percent of adults consuming at least one item from the following groups (CIa):

1.Cereals/roots/tubers

99b

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99.7

99 - 100

-

99 - 100

99 - 100

99 - 100

99 - 100

99 - 100

100 - 100

99 - 100

99.5-99.9

2.Vitamin A rich fruit and vegetables

14**

15

20

13**

16

20

17

15*

18

17

11 - 16

13 - 17

17 - 22

10 - 16

13 - 18

17 - 22

15 - 20

13 - 17

16 - 20

15 - 18

3.Other fruit- not vitamin A-rich

5***

18

42

27

25

26

22

26

25

25

3 - 8

16 - 0.20

39 -45

24 - 30

22 - 29

23 - 29

19 - 25

23 - 28

23 - 27

24 - 27

4.Other Vegetables- not vitamin A-rich

49***

46

60

46***

48

55

58

51

53

52

44 - 54

43 - 49

57 - 63

42 - 50

44 - 52

51 - 58

55 - 62

48 - 54

50 -55

50 - 54

5.Legumes & nuts

24***

18

15

15

17

19

19

16*

19

18

21 - 27

15 - 20

13 - 17

12 - 17

14 - 19

17 - 22

17 - 22

14 - 18

17 - 21

16 - 19

6.Fats & oils

22***

42

43

40

37

38

38

0.36

39

38

18 - 26

38 - 45

40 - 46

36 - 43

34 - 41

35 - 41

35 - 42

33 - 39

37 - 42

36 - 40

7. Meat/poultry/fish

45***

78

93

79

81

77

76

81**

76

78

41 - 49

75 - 80

91 - 94

76 -83

78 - 84

74 - 80

73 - 79

78 - 83

74 - 78

77 - 80

8.Dairy

25***

48

80

54***

50

58

62

57

56

56

22 - 29

45 - 51

77 - 82

50 - 58

46 - 53

55 - 61

59 - 65

55 - 60

53 - 58

55 - 58

9. Eggs

9***

20

19

20

19

17

15

19

17

18

7 - 11

18 - 23

17 - 21

17 - 23

16 - 22

15 - 19

13 - 18

17 - 21

15 - 18

16 - 19


a CI = Confidence interval- selected because of data being stratified; b 99 = 99% and 100 = 100% of people consumed from the cereal group; sample size does not always add up to n = 3287 since some questions were not answered or were unknown by participants

[A]; [B] and [C]: different symbols indicate which mean DDS values (comparing the LSM categories) are significantly different, Bonferroni multiple comparison test, p < 0.05. No significant differences between the age categories or the gender categories with regards to DDS value.

*Significant relationship between LSM, age category and gender groups respectively, and whether or not subjects consume food from a specific group, Chi-square test, p < 0.05.

**Significant relationship between LSM, age category and gender groups respectively, and whether or not subjects consume food from a specific group, Chi-square test, p < 0.01.

***Significant relationship between age category and gender groups respectively, and whether or not subjects consume food from a specific group, Chi-square test, p < 0.0001.

Labadarios et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:33   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-33

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