Table 1

Food list (134 items) and 43 food groups used for computation of dietary patterns

Food Groups (43)

Food List (134 items of the retrospective food frequency questionnaire)

1-White bread

French bread


Whole milk, semi-skimmed milk, skimmed milk, condensed & sweetened milk, goat milk


Semi-hard cheese, Emmental cheese, uncured cheese 30%


Semi-skimmed yogurt

5-Chamia1, nuts, chocolate

Chamia, almond nuts, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, chocolate bar, hazelnut chocolate, milk chocolate, dried raisin.


Jam, white sugar cubes, white sugar granulated powder, sweets

7-Sweetened beverages




9-Lamb fat

Cooked lamb fat

10-Fruits and fresh fruit juices

Dates, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, pear, apple, fresh lemon juice, fresh orange juice

11-Processed fruits

Green olive in brine, ripe olive in brine


Fresh egg, fried egg, boiled egg


Broiled mackerel, fried fish, grilled fish

14-Other sea food

Boiled cuttlefish, cooked dried octopus

15-Canned fish

Canned tuna

16-Lamb Meat

Boiled lamb meat, braised lamb meat, grilled lamb meat

17-Beef meat

Grilled beef meat, stew beef meat

18-Goat meat

Boiled goat meat

19-Beef and lamb offals

Boiled beef tripe, boiled beef feet, braised beef liver, boiled lamb brain, boiled lamb heart, boiled lamb kidneys, boiled lamb lungs, boiled lamb sweetbreads, boiled lamb spleen, grilled lamb liver, braised lamb liver

20-Chicken meat

Roasted chicken leg meat, fried chicken leg meat

21-Turkey meat

Roasted turkey breast, roasted turkey meat

22-Processed turkey meat

Cooked turkey salami

23-Olive oil

Virgin olive oil

24-Soybean Oil

Refined soybean oil

25-Bread, wholemeal

Wholemeal bread

26-Couscous, pasta, semoulina

Cornstarch, cooked pasta, couscous, cooked pearled barley, dried pearled barley, cooked semolina, dry whole grain wheat



28-Cereal flours

Cooked sorghum flour, cooked whole barley flour, cooked hard red wheat flour

29- Dry legumes

Boiled mature broad bean, cooked mature chickpeas, dried mature chickpeas (powder), cooked mature kidney beans, boiled lentils

30-Green legumes

Cooked fava, cooked broad bean (immature), cooked green peas, cooked green beans

31-Boiled potatoes

Boiled potatoes

32-Fried potatoes

French fried potatoes

33-Processed vegetables

Canned tomato paste

Canned cooked mixed vegetables

34-Green-yellow vegetables

Broiled tomato, cooked carrots, cooked celery, cooked fennel leaf, fresh parsley, boiled tomato, raw tomato, fried tomato, fried green pepper, boiled green pepper, boiled pumpkin, lettuce leaves, cooked Chorocus glinopus, cooked chard, boiled whole beets

35-Other fresh vegetables

Cooked cardoon, raw cucumber, boiled turnips, boiled white onion, raw white onions


Added salt (iodized)


Black pepper, cinnamon powder, coriander seed, cumin seed, curry powder, fennel seed, ground thyme, dried spearmint leaves

38-Other condiments

Capers, cider vinegar, brewer's yeast, compressed baker's yeast,


Fresh or cooked garlic


Home made harissa, mixed harissa, confectionnary harissa, red pepper powder






Tap water

1-Chamia: typical oriental sweet preparation of sweetened sesame seeds paste often also including dried fruits or nuts.

2-Harissa: typical Tunisian very spicy chili preparation.

Aounallah-Skhiri et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:38   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-38

Open Data