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Antioxidant intake among Brazilian adults - The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS): a cross-sectional study

Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro1*, Rozana Mesquita Ciconelli2, Gabriela Villaça Chaves3, Luana Aquino3, Claudia Ridel Juzwiak4, Patrícia de Souza Genaro5 and Marcos Bosi Ferraz2

Author Affiliations

1 Rheumatology Division, Federal University of Sao Paulo/ Paulista School of Medicine (Unifesp/ EPM), Brazil

2 Paulista Center for Health Economics, Unifesp/ EPM, Brazil

3 Micronutrient Research Center, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

4 Department of Health, Education and Society, Nutrition Course, Unifesp/Baixada Santista Campus, Brazil

5 Rheumatology Division, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Unifesp/ EPM, Brazil

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Nutrition Journal 2011, 10:39  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-39

Published: 25 April 2011



Antioxidant nutrient intake and the lesser formation of free radicals seem to contribute to chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intake profile of the main dietary antioxidants in a representative sample of the adult Brazilian population and discuss the main consequences of a low intake of these micronutrients on overall health.


The sample comprised 2344 individuals aged 40 years or older from 150 cities and was based on a probabilistic sample from official data. The research was conducted through in-home interviews administered by a team trained for this purpose. Dietary intake information was obtained through 24-h recall. The Nutrition Data System for Research software program was used to analyze data on the intake of vitamins A, C and E, selenium and zinc, which was compared to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Differences in intake according to sex, anthropometrics, socioeconomic status and region were also evaluated. The SPSS statistical package (version 13) was used for the statistical analysis. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant.


Higher proportions of low intake in relation to recommended values were found for vitamin E (99.7%), vitamin A (92.4%) and vitamin C (85.1%) in both genders. Intake variations were found between different regions, which may reflect cultural habits.


These results should lead to the development of public health policies that encourage educational strategies for improving the intake of micronutrients, which are essential to overall health and prevention of non-communicable diseases.

nutritional intake; dietary recall; micronutrients; antioxidant; Brazilian population; Public Health