Table 2

Cafestol and kahweol concentrations of coffee samples and predicted effects on serum cholesterol for consuming 5 cups daily. Coffee samples are from Singapore, Indonesia, India (current study) and Europe (Urgert et al, 1995) using various brewing methods.

Predicted effect of 5 cups/day

Source of Coffee Sample

Brewing Methods

Cafestol (mg/cup)

Kahweol (mg/cup)

#Serum cholesterol (mmol/l)

#Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l)

Current study (Asia)

Singapore overall (n = 14)

filtered ('sock')

0.09 ± 0.064 (0.02 - 0.23)

0.01 ± 0.02 (0.01 - 0.06)

0.01

<0.01

Singapore Chinese (n = 7)

filtered ('sock')

0.13 ± 0.07 (0.04 - 0.23)

0.02 ± 0.02 (0.00 - 0.06)

0.01

0.01

Singapore Malay (n = 4)

filtered ('sock')

0.06 ± 0.05 (0.02 - 0.13)

0.005 ± 0.01 (0.00 - 0.02)

0.01

<0.01

Singapore Indian (n = 3)

filtered ('sock') only

0.04 ± 0.02 (0.03 - 0.07)

0.003 ± 0.005 (0.00 - 0.01)

<0.01

<0.01

India (n = 5)

filtered (metal)

0.05 ± 0.04 (0.01 - 0.12)

0.03 ± 0.03 (0.01 - 0.07)

<0.01

<0.01

Indonesia (overall) (n = 4 )

filtered ('sock', metal); unfiltered

1.78 ± 1.78 (0.56 - 4.43)

0.24 ± 0.24 (0.09 - 0.59)

0.13

0.08

Indonesia (n = 2)

filtered ('sock')

0.85 ± 0.42 (0.56 - 1.15)

0.15 ± 0.08 (0.09 - 0.20)

0.06

0.04

Indonesia (n = 1)

filtered (metal)

0.98

0.09

0.07

0.04

Indonesia (n = 1)

unfiltered

4.43

0.59

0.33

0.20

Urgert et al (1995) (Europe)

Scandinavian boiled (n = 14)*

boiled

2.4 ± 2.24 (0.64-9.68)

3.12 ± 2.72 (0.8-11.68)

0.18

0.11

Turkish/Greek (n = 11)*

3.12 ± 2.56 (0.4-8.0)

3.12 ± 3.12 (0.08-8.56)

0.23

0.14

French Press (n = 5)*

French press

2.8 ± 0.96 (1.84-4.4)

3.52 ± 1.68 (2.08-6.4)

0.21

0.13

Espresso:

Italy (n = 10)*

espresso

1.2 ± 0.8 (0.16-2.32)

1.44 ± 1.04 (0.16-3.12)

0.09

0.05

Other (n = 21)*

espresso

0.96 ± 0.72 (0.0-2.48)

1.12 ± 0.88 (0.0-3.12)

0.07

0.04

Instant*

instant

0.2 (0.0-0.6)

-

0.01

0.01

Drip filtered (n = 3)*

filtered (paper)

0.08 ± 0.0

-

0.01

<0.01

Drip filtered (n = 3)*

filtered (nylon)

0.64 ± 0.08

-

0.05

0.03


Data are means ± SD (range). 1 cup is 120 ml.

*Adapted from Urgert et al (1995b); for some of the samples no SD or range for cafestol or no data on kahweol was presented in this publication.# Based on the calculation proposed by Urgert and Katan (1997): Δcholesterol (mmol/l) = 0.015 × cafestol (mg/day) and Δtrigycerides (mmol/l) = 0.009 × cafestol (mg/day)

Naidoo et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:48   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-48

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