Table 3

Characteristics of the Singapore Prospective Study (SP2) (N = 3000) by coffee consumption categories.

Characteristic

Total

Never or <1 cup/week

<1cup/week to <1 cup/day

1-2 cups/day

≥3 cups/day

P value


n = 891

n = 358

n = 1509

n = 242


Age (y)

47.5 ± 11.2

45.3 ± 11.5

45.9 ± 11.4

49.0 ± 10.9

48.5 ± 10.1

<0.001


Gender


Male

1348 (44.9)

327 (36.7)

159 (44.4)

689 (45.7)

173 (71.5)


Female

1652 (55.1)

564 (63.3)

199 (55.6)

820 (54.3)

69 (28.5)

<0.001


Ethnicity


Chinese

2058 (68.6)

575 (64.5)

254 (70.9)

1063 (70.4)

166 (68.6)


Malay

531 (17.7)

183 (20.5)

62 (17.3)

243 (16.1)

43 (17.8)


Indian

411 (13.7)

133 (14.9)

42 (11.7)

203 (13.5)

33 (13.6)

0.074


BMI (kg/m2)

23.6 ± 4.3

23.4 ± 4.3

23.4 ± 4.6

23.7 ± 4.4

23.9 ± 3.9

0.159


Education


Primary school and below

705 (23.5)

163 (18.3)

75 (20.9)

395 (26.2)

72 (29.8)


Secondary school

1295 (43.2)

378 (42.4)

131 (36.6)

681 (45.1)

105 (43.4)


Polytechnic and diploma

518 (17.3)

189 (21.2)

67 (18.7)

225 (14.9)

37 (15.3)


University

482 (16.1)

161 (18.1)

85 (23.7)

208 (13.8)

28 (11.6)

<0.001


Physical Activity (kcal/week)

523.1 (268.9-952.7)

522.3 (251.5-987.2)

481.0 (268.0-826.4)

530.8 (277.0-937.2)

550.5 (273.3-1108.2)

0.141


Energy intake (kcal)

1829.8 (1443.9-2336.6)

1788.1 (1386.2-2278.7)

1763.8 (1387.4-2324.7)

1824.6 (1465.2-2304.1)

2132.6 (1666.6-2647.2)

<0.001


Fiber intake (g/1000 kcal)

10.5 (9.1-12.3)

10.9 (9.3-12.8)

10.6 (9.3-12.4)

10.5 (9.1-12.2)

9.1 (7.9-10.8)

<0.001


Cholesterol intake (mg/1000 kcal)

115.4 (90.2-141.7)

115.2 (88.8-142.7)

110.9 (88.1-140.6)

116.2 (91.0-140.3)

119.6 (93.0-149.3)

0.171


PUFA intake (% of energy)

5.3 (4.2-7.2)

5.5 (4.2-7.6)

5.3 (4.2-7.1)

5.3 (4.2-7.2)

4.8 (3.9-6.4)

0.001


MUFA intake (% of energy)

9.7 ± 2.6

9.8 ± 2.7

9.8 ± 2.5

9.6 ± 2.6

9.5 ± 2.5

0.001


SFA intake (% of energy)

11.1 ± 2.8

11.1 ± 3.0

10.9 ± 2.6

11.1 ± 2.8

11.6 ± 2.8

<0.001


Cigarette Smoking


Never smoker

2393 (79.8)

782 (87.8)

298 (83.2)

1184 (78.5)

129 (53.3)


Past smoker

240 (8.0)

47 (5.3)

24 (6.7)

139 (9.2)

30 (12.4)


Current (<10 cigarettes/day)

115 (3.8)

26 (2.9)

15 (4.2)

62 (4.1)

12 (5.0)


Current (≥10 cigarettes/day)

252 (8.4)

36 (4.0)

21 (5.9)

124 (8.2)

71 (29.3)

<0.001


Alcohol Consumption


non-drinker

2457 (81.9)

755 (84.7)

289 (80.7)

1227 (81.3)

186 (76.9)


<1 serving/day

479 (16.0)

128 (14.4)

62 (17.3)

241 (16)

48 (19.8)


≥1 serving/day

64 (2.1)

8 (0.9)

7 (2.0)

41 (2.7)

8 (3.3)

0.012


Abbreviations: PUFA - polyunsaturated fatty acids, MUFA - monounsaturated fatty acids, SAF - saturated fatty acids

Values are mean ± SD for continuous variables and n (%) for categorical variables.

The Kruskal-Wallis test (for non-normally distributed continuous variables), analysis of covariance (for normally distributed continuous variables) or the chi-squared test (for categorical variables) was used to compare participant characteristics across coffee consumption categories.

Naidoo et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:48   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-48

Open Data