Table 4

Mean serum lipid concentrations in the SP2 study (N = 3000) according to level of coffee consumption

Concentration (geometric mean (95% CI))


Fasting lipids, mmol/L

Never or <1 cup/week

1 cup/week to <1 cup/day

1-2 cups/day

≥3 cups/day

Percentage difference between extreme groups

P for trend


n = 891

n = 358

n = 1509

n = 242


Model 1

HDL-cholesterol

1.32 (1.30 - 1.34)

1.33 (1.30 - 1.36)

1.33 (1.32 - 1.35)

1.27 (1.23 - 1.31)

-3.79%

0.057


LDL-cholesterol

3.19 (3.13 - 3.24)

3.14 (3.06 - 3.22)

3.26 (3.22 - 3.30)

3.31 (3.21 - 3.40)

3.76%

0.004


Triglycerides

1.14 (1.10 - 1.18)

1.17 (1.11 - 1.23)

1.16 (1.13 - 1.19)

1.25 (1.18 - 1.34)

9.65%

0.020


Total cholesterol

5.14 (5.09 - 5.20)

5.11 (5.02 - 5.20)

5.24 (5.19 - 5.29)

5.27 (5.16 - 5.38)

2.53%

0.005


Model 2‡ ‡

HDL-cholesterol

1.37 (1.34-1.41)

1.39 (1.34-1.43)

1.40 (1.37-1.43)

1.35 (1.31-1.40)

-1.46%

0.809


LDL-cholesterol

3.05 (2.95-3.15)

3.00 (2.88-3.11)

3.10 (3.01-3.19)

3.11 (2.98-3.23)

1.97%

0.098


Triglycerides

1.23 (1.16-1.30)

1.24 (1.16-1.33)

1.21 (1.14-1.28)

1.26 (1.17-1.36)

2.44%

0.762


Total cholesterol

5.13 (5.03-5.24)

5.09 (4.96-5.21)

5.19 (5.09-5.29)

5.18 (5.04-5.32)

0.97%

0.163


Model 3‡ ‡ ‡

HDL-cholesterol

1.38 (1.34-1.42)

1.39 (1.35-1.43)

1.40 (1.37-1.44)

1.36 (1.31-1.41)

-1.19%

0.976


LDL-cholesterol

3.05 (2.96-3.15)

3.00 (2.88-3.11)

3.10 (3.01-3.19)

3.10 (2.98-3.23)

1.69%

0.120


Triglycerides

1.22 (1.15-1.30)

1.24 (1.15-1.33)

1.20 (1.14-1.27)

1.24 (1.15-1.35)

1.52%

0.961


Total cholesterol

5.14 (5.03-5.25)

5.09 (4.96-5.22)

5.20 (5.10-5.30)

5.18 (5.04-5.32)

0.78%

0.183


‡ Model 1: Adjustment for age (yr), gender (male, female), ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, Indian)

‡ ‡ Model 2: Adjustment for age (yr), gender (male, female), ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, Indian), BMI (kg/m2), smoking (non-smoker, ex-smoker, smoker <10cigarettes/day, smoker ≥10cigarettes/day), education (primary and below, secondary, polytechnic and diploma, university), physical activity (kcal/week), hypertension (yes, no), alcohol (non-drinker, <1serving/day, ≥ 1 serving day)

‡ ‡ ‡ Model 3: Adjustment for age (yr), gender (male, female), ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, Indian), BMI (kg/m2), smoking (non-smoker, ex-smoker, smoker <10cigarettes/day, smoker ≥10cigarettes/day), education (primary and below, secondary, polytechnic and diploma, university), physical activity (kcal/week), hypertension (yes, no), alcohol (non-drinker, <1serving/day, ≥ 1 serving day), energy intake (kcal), fiber (g/day/1000 kcal), cholesterol (mg/day/1000 kcal), PUFA (% of total energy), MUFA (% of total energy), SFA (% of total energy)

Naidoo et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:48   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-48

Open Data