Table 1

Characteristics of study participants across categories of coffee consumeda

Total

Never or rarely

(n = 1202)

< 1 cup per day

(n = 475)

1-2 cups per day

(n = 2118)

≥ 3 cups per day

(n = 344)

P-value


Age (y)

48.8 ± 11.3

46.9 ± 11.7

47.1 ± 11.7

50.2 ± 11.0

49.2 ± 9.9

<0.001

BMI (kg/m2)

23.2 (20.8 - 26.0)

23 (20.4 - 26.09)

23.2 (20.5 - 25.9)

23.3 (20.9 - 26.1)

23.4(21.5 - 26.0)

0.0317

Females, n (%)

2218 (53.6)

739 (61.5)

265 (55.8)

1112 (52.5)

102 (29.7)

<0.001

Ethnicity, n (%)

0.117

Chinese

2868 (69.3)

793 (66.0)

337 (70.9)

1503 (71.0)

235 (68.3)

Malay

698 (16.9)

228 (19.0)

77 (16.2)

332 (15.7)

61 (17.7)

Indian

573 (13.8)

181 (15.1)

61 (12.8)

283 (13.4)

48 (14.0)

Primary education and below, n (%)

998 (24.1)

236 (19.6)

99 (20.8)

569 (26.9)

94 (27.3)

< 0.001

Alcohol consumption, n (%)

0.003

Non-drinker

3371 (81.4)

1016 (84.5)

379 (79.8)

1711 (80.8)

265 (77.0)

< 1 serving per day

690 (16.7)

175 (14.6)

88 (18.5)

356 (16.8)

71 (20.6)

≥ 1 serving per day

78 (1.9)

11 (0.9)

8 (1.7)

51 (2.4)

8 (2.3)

Current cigarette smoking, n (%)

485 (11.7)

76 (6.3)

41 (8.6)

262 (12.4)

106 (30.8)

< 0.001

Black tea (cups/week)b

4.4 ± 6.0

5.5 ± 7.0

4.6 ± 5.5

3.7 ± 5.2

4.0 ± 6.9

< 0.001

Chinese tea (cups/week)b

2.1 ± 5.2

2.1 ± 5.5

2.8 ± 6.1

2.0 ± 4.7

1.8 ± 5.6

< 0.001

Green tea (cups/week)b

1.6 ± 3.9

1.7 ± 4.0

2.0 ± 4.2

1.4 ± 3.8

1.4 ± 3.9

< 0.001

Physical activity (kcal/week)

3694 (1922 - 6728)

3736 (1810 - 7086)

3353 (1885 - 5999)

3725 (1952 - 6605)

4160(2075 - 8055)

0.031

% energy from SFA

11.1 ± 2.8

11 ± 2.9

10.9 ± 2.7

11 ± 2.8

11.8 ± 2.8

< 0.001

% energy from MUFA

9.7 ± 2.6

9.8 ± 2.7

9.8 ± 2.6

9.6 ± 2.6

9.5 ± 2.6

0.115

% energy from PUFA

5.3 (4.2 - 7.3)

5.6 (4.2 - 7.6)

5.4 (4.2 - 7.2)

5.3 (4.2 - 7.2)

4.7 (3.8 - 6.4)

< 0.001

Fiber (g per 1000 kcal)

10.5 (9.1 - 12.3)

11.0 (9.3 - 12.8)

10.6 (9.3 - 12.4)

10.5 (9.1 - 12.2)

9.2 (8.0 - 10.8)

< 0.001

Cholesterol (mg per 1000 kcal)

113.6 (88.0 -140.5)

112.2 (86.4 - 141.9)

110.5 (86.3 - 141.3)

114.3 (88.7 - 138.2)

116.9 (93.0 - 146.6)

0.016

History of hypertension, n (%)

710 (17.2)

214 (17.8)

80 (16.8)

373 (17.6)

43 (12.5)

0.114

History of dyslipidemia, n (%)

1139 (27.5)

311 (25.9)

117 (24.6)

609 (28.8)

102 (29.7)

0.111


a Abbreviations: SFA; saturated fatty acid, MUFA; monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA; polyunsaturated fatty acids. Data are presented as mean ± SD, median (IQR) or n (%) unless otherwise specified.

b Median values were assigned to each category of coffee/tea as follows: never/rarely; 0, < 1 cup/week; 0.4, > than 1 cup/wk but < 1cup/d; 4;1-2 cups/d; 10.5; 3-5 cups/d; 28; 6-9 cups/day; 52.5 and 10 or more cups/day; 70. Means and SD are presented in the tables; due to skewed data the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to test for differences between categories.

Rebello et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:61   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-61

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