Table 1

Daily Intake of Energy and Macronutrients of Bahraini students (Boys = 256 & Girls = 240) compared to the Dietary Reference Values (EAR, RNI) for the United Kingdom according to age groups 22

Boys

Girls


Macronutrient

7 - 10 Years

(n = 84)

11-14 Years

(n = 97)

15-18 Years

(n = 75)

All ages

7 - 10 Years

(n = 70)

11-14 Years

(n = 91)

15-18 Years

(n = 79)

All ages


Mean (SD)

Standard

(%)1

Mean (SD)

Standard

(%)

Mean (SD)

Standard

(%)

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

Standard

(%)

Mean (SD)

Standard

(%)

Mean (SD)

Standard

(%)

Mean (SD)


Energy (kcal)

1851.1d (347.9)

1,970 (94.0)

2101.3d (548.1)

2,220 (94.7)

2367d (548.7)

2,755 (85.9)

2097.1b (530.3)

1793.4 (472.7)

1,740 (103.1)

1822.3 (447.7)

1,845 (98.8)

1739.9 (386.3)

2,110 (82.5)

1786.8b (435.8)


Protein (gm)

70.7 d(18.2)

28.3 (249.8)

83.4d (24.2)

42.1 (198.1)

91.4d (23.2)

55.2 (165.6)

81.6b (23.5)

68.8 (19.2)

28.3 (243.1)

68 (19.9)

41.2 (165.0)

67 (20.6)

45.0 (148.9)

67.9b (19.9)


%Kcals Proteins

15.3 (2.5)

15.9 (2.4)

15.5 (2.4)

15.6 (2.5)

15.4 (2.2)

15 (2.8)

15.4 (3)

15.2 (2.7)


Carbohydrate (gm)

241.5d (49.4)

274d (69.4)

319.9d (79)

276.8b (73.3)

229.2 (62)

236.7 (65.3)

230.1 (54.1)

232.4b (60.7)


%Kcals Carbohydrates

52.3c (5.2)

52.5c (5.1)

54 c(5.2)

52.9 (5.2)

51.2 (5)

52 (6)

53 (5.6)

52.1 (5.6)


Fat, total (gm)

68.8d (16.7)

76.6d (25)

82.2d (22.8)

75.7b (22.5)

68.7 (21.8)

68.8 (19.6)

63.3 (16.9)

67b (19.5)


%Kcals Fats

33.3d (3.8)

32.5d (4)

31.1d (3.9)

32.4 (4)

34.3c (4.1)

33.9c (4.3)

32.7c (4)

33.6 (4.2)


Cholesterol (mg)

260.3 (100.6)

300.8 (121.6)

299.8 (167)

287.2b (131.6)

265 (121.2)

243.5 (119.6)

229.3 (123.7)

245.1b (121.7)


Saturated Fat (gm)

22.1 (7.3)

23.1 (8.4)

24.4 (8.6)

23.2a (8.1)

23.1c (9.3)

22.1c (7.3)

19.5c (6.2)

21.6a (7.7)


%kcals Saturated

10.6d (2.3)

9.9d (2.1)

9.3d (2.4)

9.9 (2.3)

11.4d (2.2)

10.9d (2.3)

10.1d (2.2)

10.8 (2.3)


Monounsaturated Fat (gm)

19.9d (5.9)

21.2d (7.5)

24d (7)

21.6b (7)

19 (7.2)

18.9 (6.7)

17.7 (5.7)

18.5b (6.5)


%kcals Monosaturated

9.6 (1.9)

9 (1.9)

9.1 (1.5)

9.3 (1.8)

9.4 (1.8)

9.2 (2)

9.1 (1.9)

9.3 (1.9)


Polyunsaturated Fat (gm)

12.2 (3.5)

14 (5.6)

13.5 (4.3)

13.3b (4.7)

12.4 (4.5)

12.7 (5.4)

11.8 (4.6)

12.3b (4.9)


%kcals Ployunsaturated

5.9d (1.4)

6d (1.7)

5.2d (1.3)

5.7 (1.5)

6.3 (1.9)

6.2 (1.9)

6.1 (1.9)

6.2 (1.9)


MFA 18:1, Oleic (gm)

7.8 (4.1)

7.8 (3.8)

8.6 (4.7)

8.0a (4.2)

7.6 (4.9)

7.1 (3.7)

6.8 (3.5)

7.1a (4)


PFA 18:2, Linoleic (gm)

3.9c (2.1)

4.9c (3.1)

4.6c(2.1)

4.5 (2.6)

4.3 (2.7)

4.3 (2.4)

3.9 (2)

4.2 (2.4)


PFA 18:3, Linolenic (gm)

0.3 (0.1)

0.3 (0.2)

0.3 (0.1)

0.3 (0.1)

0.3 (0.2)

0.3 (0.1)

0.3 (0.1)

0.3 (0.2)


PFA 20:5, EPA (gm)

0 (0)

0 (0)

0 (0)

0 (0)

0 (0)

0 (0)

0 (0.1)

0 (0)


PFA 22:6, DHA (gm)

0 (0.1)

0.1 (0.1)

0 (0)

0 (0.1)

0 (0.1)

0 (0.1)

0.1 (0.1)

0.1 (0.1)


Dietary Fiber, total (gm)

12.4c (5.6)

13.6c (5.6)

14.8c (6.1)

13.5a (5.8)

12 (5.4)

12.2 (5.8)

13 (6.5)

12.4a (5.9)


Sugar, total (gm)

93.2d (31.1)

98d (34.5)

114.6d (43.5)

101.3b (37.3)

87.1 (30.7)

93.8 (40.1)

85.5 (35.6)

89.1b (36.1)


Sucrose (gm)

22.7 (11.3)

22.3 (12.3)

25.2 (15)

23.3 (12.8)

17.5 (9.2)

16.5 (9.7)

18.3 (11.8)

17.4 (10.3)


Lactose (gm)

8.3 (4.5)

6.5 (4.3)

6 (5.9)

6.9b (4.9)

9 (5.6)

6.2 (4)

5.4 (4.7)

6.7b (4.9)


P:S 2

0.6 (0.2)

0.6 (0.2)

0.6 (0.2)

0.6 (0.2)

0.6 (0.2)

0.6 (0.2)

0.6 (0.2)

0.6 (0.2)


1: Standard Reference Values (UK): EAR for energy and RNI for Protein, (percentage of standard) [22]; 2: Polyunsaturated fat to Saturated fat ratio

a p < 0.05; b p < 0.01 (Mann-Whitney test) Significantly different between genders

c p < 0.05, d p < 0.01 Significantly different across age groups

Gharib and Rasheed Nutrition Journal 2011 10:62   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-62

Open Data