Table 5

Associations between protein intakes and socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors by multiple linear regression

Animal protein and specific main sources

Predictor variablesa,

Total animal protein

Dairy proteinb

Meat proteinc

Poultry protein

Fish protein

β

95% CI

P

β

95% CI

P

β

95% CI

P

β

95% CI

P

β

95% CI

P


Lower secondary educated mother

15.68

-12.20

43.55

0.270

-3.00

-6.39

0.39

0.083

-6.33

-15.37

2.71

0.170

0.30

-9.79

10.40

0.953

1.11

0.16

2.05

0.022

Secondary educated mother

6.42

-4.12

16.96

0.233

-0.13

-1.56

1.30

0.859

0.22

-3.64

4.08

0.910

3.96

0.04

7.89

0.048

0.12

-0.25

0.49

0.534

Lower secondary educated father

-1.22

-4.05

1.62

0.400

-4.14

-6.53

-1.74

0.001

-8.65

-15.58

-1.71

0.015

-3.26

-15.76

9.24

0.609

-1.71

-7.62

4.20

0.570

Secondary educated father

-1.77

-3.40

-0.15

0.032

-1.94

-3.22

-0.66

0.003

-3.77

-7.17

-0.37

0.030

-4.47

-10.83

1.89

0.168

-0.55

-3.55

2.46

0.722

Both employed parents

2.88

-27.05

32.80

0.850

-0.57

-3.49

2.35

0.701

11.27

-1.42

23.97

0.082

0.54

-0.82

1.90

0.438

5.64

-1.47

12.76

0.120

One employed parent

1.33

-30.31

32.96

0.934

0.91

-2.21

4.03

0.567

11.47

-1.95

24.89

0.094

0.07

-1.38

1.52

0.922

7.19

-0.33

14.72

0.061

Two- parent family

4.57

-56.85

65.99

0.884

4.17

-2.04

10.37

0.188

-0.98

-27.04

25.07

0.941

5.95

-24.94

36.84

0.706

5.62

-8.98

20.23

0.451

Light physical activity

-4.42

-7.51

-1.33

0.005

-1.20

-3.04

0.65

0.204

0.06

-0.77

0.89

0.892

2.30

-6.24

10.83

0.598

-1.37

-6.53

3.79

0.602

Moderate physical activity

-3.39

-6.47

-0.31

0.031

-0.94

-2.72

0.85

0.305

-0.08

-0.88

0.72

0.839

-4.07

-12.25

4.11

0.330

-4.41

-9.41

0.60

0.084

Smoking mother

7.44

-10.50

25.38

0.416

-0.83

-2.81

1.16

0.414

1.03

-6.58

8.64

0.791

-2.59

-11.61

6.43

0.574

1.93

-2.34

6.20

0.375

Smoking father

7.49

-5.02

20.00

0.241

-0.22

-1.83

1.39

0.788

-0.47

-5.78

4.84

0.862

-2.56

-8.85

3.73

0.426

0.67

0.11

1.23

0.019

Plant protein and specific main sources

Total plant protein

Cereal protein

Potato and grain protein

Vegetable Protein

Fruit Protein

Lower secondary educated mother

-14.29

-23.43

-5.15

0.002

-9.67

-15.19

-4.15

0.001

0.58

-2.86

4.03

0.741

-0.12

-0.40

0.17

0.421

-0.25

-0.65

0.15

0.223

Secondary educated mother

-4.08

-7.63

-0.53

0.024

-0.96

-3.07

1.15

0.373

-0.34

-1.79

1.11

0.647

-0.15

-0.26

-0.03

0.012

-0.03

-0.19

0.14

0.750

Lower secondary educated father

-2.62

-13.97

8.73

0.652

0.47

-0.31

1.26

0.239

-2.30

-5.04

0.44

0.099

-0.14

-0.34

0.06

0.159

-0.16

-0.43

0.11

0.248

Secondary educated father

3.41

-2.36

9.19

0.247

0.21

-0.27

0.69

0.397

0.31

-1.08

1.70

0.663

-0.14

-0.25

-0.02

0.020

-0.22

-0.36

-0.07

0.004

Both employed parents

-0.02

-1.45

1.40

0.975

-2.18

-10.31

5.96

0.600

-1.76

-5.06

1.54

0.295

0.05

-0.17

0.27

0.657

-0.01

-0.34

0.31

0.928

One employed parent

0.26

-1.26

1.78

0.738

0.15

-8.45

8.75

0.973

-1.97

-5.45

1.52

0.269

0.25

0.02

0.49

0.034

0.02

-0.32

0.37

0.900

Two- parent family

-0.91

-2.52

0.69

0.265

-2.12

-18.81

14.57

0.804

-3.11

-9.88

3.65

0.367

-0.16

-0.63

0.30

0.490

-0.01

-0.69

0.67

0.981

Light physical activity

-1.61

-6.17

2.94

0.488

0.96

-2.00

3.92

0.524

-0.10

-0.32

0.11

0.347

-0.07

-0.21

0.08

0.373

-0.09

-0.30

0.12

0.399

Moderate physical activity

-4.93

-9.40

-0.45

0.031

-1.05

-3.94

1.83

0.474

-0.14

-0.35

0.08

0.212

0.03

-0.11

0.17

0.672

0.02

-0.18

0.22

0.830

Smoking mother

0.77

-7.42

8.96

0.854

-0.20

-5.08

4.67

0.936

1.34

0.11

2.63

0.033

0.09

-0.06

0.24

0.232

-0.03

-0.24

0.19

0.811

Smoking father

-1.58

-7.29

4.14

0.588

-0.38

-0.84

0.07

0.098

0.40

-0.98

1.78

0.568

0.03

-0.10

0.15

0.690

-0.08

-0.25

0.09

0.353


β: coefficient β; CI, confidence interval; NS, not statistically significant.

aGLM was controlled for total energy intake, age, gender, nationality, and dietary supplement intake. Higher educated parents, families with both parents unemployed, preschoolers with a high level of physical activity, and non-smoking parents were used as references.

bDairy products include the food groups milk and milk products, and cheese.

cMeat refers to the food subgroup meat, game, and meat products.

Lin et al. Nutrition Journal 2011 10:97   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-97

Open Data