Table 1

Summary of recent biomarker studies related to macronutrient foods
Food/Dietary componenta Reference Biomarkerb(Sample size) Biological sample Analytic procedurec Biomarker classd Validitye,f(p value) Reproductivityf(p value) Sensitivityg
Carbohydrates
Cane Sugar/HFCS Cook et al. (2009) 13C in blood glucose (5 young adults) Plasma GC-IRMS Short term R2=0.90 (<0.001)
Yeung et al. (2010) 13C (186 older adults) Serum (fasting) CF-SIRMS r=0.87 (0.01)
Davy et al. (2011) 13C (60 adults) Fingerstick NA-SIMS Medium term? r=0.365 (<0.05) r=0.873 (<0.001)
Sugar Tasevska et al. (2005) Sucrose & Fructose (12 male adults; 13 adults) Urine (24 hr) Enzymatic Short term R2= 0.888 (<0.001) ICC 0.67i +
Kuhnle et al. (2008) Sucrose (7 adults) Urine (24 hr) GC-MS Short term
Urine (24 hr) LC-MS Short term
Whole-Grain Wheat/Rye Linko-Parvinen et al. (2007) Enterolactone (ENL) (15 adults) Plasma (fasting) TR-FIA Short term
Total Alkylreoscinol (AR) concentration Plasma (fasting) GC-MS Short term R2=0.939 (<0.05)
Erythrocyte AR RBC (fasting) GC-MS Medium term? R2=0.854 (<0.05)
Aurbertin-Leheudre et al. (2008) Total AR concentration (56 women) Plasma (fasting) GC-MS r=0.406 (0.003)
DHBA Urine (24 hr) HPLC r= 0.359 (0.008)
DHPPA Urine (24 hr) HPLC r= 0.402 (0.003)
Landberg et al. (2008, 2009, 2009) DHBA, DHPPA (16 adults) Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term
Total AR concentration (30 adults; 17 males with prostate cancer) Plasma (fasting) GC-MS Short term r= 0.58 (<0.001) ICC 0.90, 0.88i +
Aderson et al. (2011) Total AR concentration (51 adults) Plasma (fasting) GC-MS Medium term r=0.53 (<0.001) r=0.38 (P<0.001)
Fats
Total Fat King et al. (2006) PUFA, MUFA, SFA RBC (fasting) 1D-TLC Long term? +
(66 postmenopausal females) Plasma (fasting) 1D-TLC +
Fatty Acids Baylin et al. (2002) PUFA (503 older Costa Ricans) Adipsoe tissue (fasting) GLC r=0.58 (<0.001)
Trans-fatty acids Adipose tissue (fasting) GLC r=0.43 (<0.001)
Poppitt et al. (2005) SFA, MUFA, PUFA RBC (fasting) GC
(20 male adults)
Fuhrman et al. (2006) Oleic acid (204 female adults) RBC (fasting) GC Medium term r=0.45; 0.47* (<0.001)
Total PUFA RBC (fasting) GC Medium term r=0.17h; 0.39* (<0.001)
Total MUFA RBC (fasting) GC Medium term r=0.40; 0.48*
(<0.001)
Total SFA RBC (fasting) GC r=0.14hi; 0.07*hi
Thiebaut et al. (2009) SFA, MUFA, PUFA (1,114 female adults) Serum (fasting) GC Long term r=0.16–0.29 (<0.0001)
Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) Baylin et al. (2005) Alpha-linolenic acid & Linoleic acid Adipose tissue GLC Long term r=0.51; 0.52** (<0.05)
(200 Costa Rican adults) Blood (fasting) GLC Long term r=0.38; 0.43** (<0.05)
Plasma (fasting) GLC Long term r=0.39; 0.41** (<0.05)
Fuhrman et al. (2006) Linoleic acid (204 female adults) RBC (fasting) GC Medium term r=0.23; 0.39* (<0.05; <0.001)
Alpha-linolenic acid RBC (fasting) GC r=0.14hi, 0.07*hi
EPA, DHA Kuriki et al. (2003) EPA (15 male, 79 female Japanese dietitians) Plasma (fasting) GC r=0.57; 0.60*** (<0.05; <0.001)
DHA Plasma (fasting) GC r=0.57; 0.30** (<0.05; <0.01)
Harris et al. (2004) Omega-3 Index (EPA+DHA) (57 adults) Plasma (fasting) GC Long term r=0.91(<0.001) +
Blood (fasting) GC Long term r=0.91 (<0.001) +
O’Brien et al (2009) 15N-EPA (496 adult Eskimos) Blood CF-IRMS r=0.47(<0.001)
15N-DHA Blood CF-IRMS r=0.46 (<0.001)
Nash et al. (2009) 15N-EPA (144 adult Eskimos) Hair CF-IRMS Medium term r=0.83 (0.001)
15N-DHA Hair CF-IRMS Medium term r=0.84 (<0.001)
Olive Oil Micro-Casas et al. (2002) Tyrosol (7 adults) Urine (24 hr) GC-MS Short term
Hydroxytyrosol Urine (24 hr) GC-MS Short term
Proteins
Protein Bingham (2003) Urine Nitrogen (8 adults) Urine (24 hr) Kjeldahl Short term R2=0.99i
Animal Protein Petzke & Lemke (2009) 13C (14 young adult females) Hair GC/C/IRMS Medium term-Long term? R2=0.44 (0.005)
15N Hair GC/C/IRMS Medium term- Long term? R2=0.17h (0.069)
Cross et al. (2011) Creatinine (17 male adults) Urine (24 hr) Kinetic assay Short term Ptrend(<0.0001) +?
Taurine Urine (24 hr) IEC Short term? Ptrend(<0.0001) +?
1-methylhistidine Urine (24 hr) IEC Short term? Ptrend(<0.0001) +
3-methylhistidine Urine (24 hr) IEC Short term Ptrend(<0.0001) +

aHFCS, High fructose corn syrup; EPA, Eicosapentaenoic Acid; DHA, Docosahexaenoic Acid.

bDHBA, 3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid; DHPPA, 3-(3,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)-Propanoic Acid; PUFA, Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid; MUFA, Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acid; SFA, Saturated Fatty Acid; RBC, Red Blood Cell.

cGC-IRMS, gas chromatography isotope ratio mass; CF-SIRMS, Continuous-flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry; NA-SIMS, Natural abundance stable isotope mass spectrometry; GC-MS, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LC-MS, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; TR-FIA, Time-resolved fluroimmunoassay; HPLC, High-performance liquid chromatography; 1D-TLC, One-dimensional thin-layer chromatography; GLC, Gas liquid chromatography; GC, Gas chromatography; CF-IRMS, Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry; GC/C/IRMS, Gas chromatography/combustion/ isotope ratio mass spectrometry; IEC, Ion-exchange chromatography.

dShort term: hours/days; Medium term: weeks/months; Long term: months/years.

eResults of comparsion of biomarkers to an appropriate dietary assessment method.

fRepresentative values from the literature.

gBiomarker is able to detect changes over time or distinguish high from low consumers; + = sensitivity has been demonstrated.

hCorrelation not significant.

iSignificance not reported.

*Values presented are pre, post menopausal, respectively.

**Values presented are alpha-linolenic, linoleic acid, respectively.

***Values presented are male, female, respectively.

Hedrick et al.

Hedrick et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:109   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-109

Open Data