Table 2

Summary of recent biomarker studies on various food/dietary components
Food/Dietary component Reference Biomarker (Sample size) Biological sample Analytic procedurea Biomarker classb Validityc,d(p value) Reproducibilityd(p value) Sensitivitye
Caffeine Crews et al.(2001) Caffeine (137X) (8 adults) Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term
Caffeine Metabolite: 17X Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term R2=0.58*
Caffeine Metabolite : 17U Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term R2=0.87*
Caffeine Metabolite: 1X Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term R2=0.78*
Caffeine Metabolite: AFMU Urine (24 hr) HPLC Short term
Citrus Heinzmann et al. (2010) Proline Betaine (8 adults) Urine (24 hr) 1H NMR Short term R2=0.40 (<0.0001) +
Lloyd et al. (2011) Proline betaine (23 adults) Urine (fasting) FT-ICR-MS Short term?
Hesperidin Urine (fasting) FT-ICR-MS
Nariruin Urine (fasting) FT-ICR-MS
Cocoa Llorach et al. (2009) Urinary metabolome (10 adults) Urine HPLC-q-TOF Short term
Garlic Verhagen et al.(2001) S-allyl-mercapturic acid (ALMA) (101 male adults) Urine (24 hr) GC-MS Short term
Wine Zamora-Ros et al. (2006) Total resveratrol metabolites (TRMs) (20 adults) Urine (fasting) LC-MS/MS Short term +
TRMs Plasma (fasting) LC-MS/MS Short term
Zamora-Ros et al. (2009) Resveratrol metabolites (1,000 adults) Urine (fasting) LC-MS/MS Short term r=0.895 (p<0.001) +
Rotches-Ribalta et al. (2012) Resveratrol metabolites (10 males) Blood & Urine LC-ESI-MS/MS Short term

aHPLC, High-performance liquid chromatography; 1H NMR, 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; FT-ICR-MS, Linear trap quadrupole-Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy ultra; HPLC-q-TOF, High-performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry; GC-MS, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LC-MS/MS, Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; LC-ESI-MS/MS Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry.

bShort term: hours/days; Medium term: weeks/months; Long term: months/years.

cResults of comparsion of biomarkers to an appropriate dietary assessment method.

dRepresentative values from the literature.

eBiomarker is able to detect changes in intake over time or distinguish high from low consumers; + = sensitivity has been demonstrated.

*Significance not reported.

Hedrick et al.

Hedrick et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:109   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-109

Open Data