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Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

Rasha Babiker1*, Tarig H Merghani2, Khalifa Elmusharaf3, Rehab M Badi4, Florian Lang5 and Amal M Saeed4

Author affiliations

1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences & Technology, P.O Box. 12810, Khartoum, Sudan

2 Department of physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tabouk, Tabouk, Saudi Arabia

3 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, P.O Box 15503, Adliya, Manama, Bahrain

4 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, P.O Box 102, Khartoum, Sudan

5 Department of Physiology, Eberhard-Karls, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

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Citation and License

Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:111  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-111

Published: 15 December 2012

Abstract

Background

Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females.

Methods

A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation.

Results

Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen.

Conclusions

GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.

Keywords:
Gum Arabic; Obesity; BMI; Body fat percentage