Table 2

Participant characteristics by quintile of daily vegetable expenditure
Quintiles of daily vegetable expenditure (NTD)
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 P
Characteristics n % n % n % n % n %
Cumulative death rate* 68.1 47.6 44.8 36.3 39.9
Gender
Male 157 17.6 168 18.1 168 13.9 180 23.0 201 22.1 0.214
Female 199 20.2 188 20.2 188 21.4 176 19.6 156 18.6
Age, y
65-69 122 14.0 142 19.6 153 21.5 145 22.3 145 22.5 0.003
70-74 107 17.5 129 22.6 109 19.8 119 19.4 126 20.7
75-79 80 20.3 58 15.8 57 16.6 56 2.4 61 21.0
≥80 47 26.2 27 15.3 37 22.9 36 21.5 35 14.1
Ethnicity
Fukienese 213 18.8 239 20.4 221 20.1 223 20.9 211 19.9 <0.001
Hakka 31 19.2 27 13.3 52 24.3 41 22.9 39 20.2
Mainlander 54 17.4 55 18.9 62 19.4 61 22.0 75 22.4
Indigenous 58 35.3 34 17.8 21 10.7 30 16.2 32 20.0
Education
Illiterate 130 20.2 122 19.4 122 20.5 131 20.4 112 19.7 0.955
Primary and below 155 17.7 164 19.0 163 20.6 155 23.3 154 19.5
Secondary and above 69 18.4 70 19.4 69 19.0 69 19.7 90 23.4
Living arrangement
Lived alone 145 23.9 114 17.4 111 20.5 116 20.0 104 18.3 0.029
Live with spouse 211 16.5 240 19.9 244 20.3 238 21.9 251 21.5
Personal income (NTD/month)
<5000 238 20.0 231 20.9 200 20.3 184 18.2 207 20.7 0.247
5000-19,999 70 17.3 85 18.0 98 20.4 103 25.2 84 19.2
≥20,000 22 13.8 21 15.2 38 23.2 36 28.7 33 19.1
Chewing ability
Unsatisfactory 147 20.1 128 19.9 129 22.7 122 17.9 118 19.5 0.033
Satisfactory 195 17.1 222 18.9 222 19.4 226 23.4 234 21.2
Perceived health status
Good 118 16.2 122 17.5 145 21.4 143 22.5 156 22.3 0.144
Fair 157 19.2 165 19.4 161 19.6 167 22.1 153 19.6
Poor 70 23.0 63 22.3 47 20.1 40 16.1 46 18.5
Diabetes mellitus
No 303 18.6 312 19.0 308 20.4 307 21.2 316 20.8 0.880
Yes 47 20.6 41 19.8 44 19.8 44 22.0 37 17.8
Physical activity (MET/day)
<1.5 237 20.7 225 19.8 209 20.1 206 20.7 202 18.7 0.193
1.5-3 42 20.0 37 16.6 38 17.5 43 25.6 40 18.4
>3 76 14.8 93 18.7 107 21.5 105 20.8 115 24.1
Smoking
No 280 18.7 278 18.4 286 20.7 283 21.8 277 20.5 0.803
Yes 76 19.6 78 22.0 70 19.0 73 19.5 80 20.0
Alcohol drinking
No 297 19.9 285 19.2 280 20.0 281 20.9 285 20.1 0.207
Yes 57 14.0 71 19.1 76 22.2 74 23.5 71 21.2
Body mass index (kg/m2) ‡ 23.3 0.30 24.1 0.27 23.6 0.26 23.5 0.27 23.6 0.25
<18.5 27 26.4 12 8.45 15 19.4 19 23.5 19 22.2 <0.001
18.5-23.9 121 19.7 125 17.0 121 21.3 125 20.6 126 21.4
24-26.9 79 16.4 69 17.7 85 19.1 78 22.8 85 24.0
≥27 37 14.1 49 21.3 52 22.9 46 20.0 59 21.7

* Per 1000 person-years.

Differences across quintiles were tested by chi-square for categorical variables.

Values are mean and SE.

Lo et al.

Lo et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:113   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-113

Open Data