Table 3

Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of daily food group expenditures and all-cause mortality (n=1781)
Food category Quintile of daily food expenditure (NTD) P for trend Per NTD 15 Per NTD 15
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
Vegetable, range <8.20 8.21-13.9 14.0-20.6 20.7-29.7 >29.7
Crude Ref. 0.67 (0.51, 0.90) 0.64 (0.46, 0.90) 0.51 (0.38, 0.69) 0.56 (0.39, 0.79) <0.001 0.83 (0.73, 0.94) 0.80 (0.69, 0.93)
Model 1 Ref. 0.82 (0.61, 1.09) 0.78 (0.52, 1.17) 0.55 (0.39, 0.78) 0.74 (0.50, 1.08) 0.022 0.88 (0.77, 1.01) 0.84 (0.72, 0.99)
Model 2 Ref. 0.87 (0.65, 1.17) 0.83 (0.55, 1.25) 0.58 (0.41, 0.83) 0.79 (0.54, 1.15) 0.041 0.91 (0.80, 1.04) 0.87 (0.74, 1.01)
Fruit, range 0 0.10-9.37 9.38-17.1 17.2-29.5 >29.6
Crude Ref. 0.86 (0.65, 1.14) 0.63 (0.46, 0.86) 0.57 (0.43, 0.77) 0.60 (0.43, 0.82) <0.001 0.86 (0.79, 0.93) 0.84 (0.76, 0.93)
Model 1 Ref. 0.92 (0.73, 1.17) 0.62 (0.42, 0.92) 0.64 (0.42, 0.99) 0.69 (0.45, 1.05) 0.020 0.90 (0.81, 1.22) 0.88 (0.77, 1.00)
Model 2 Ref. 1.02 (0.81, 1.28) 0.76 (0.53, 1.09) 0.78 (0.49, 1.27) 0.80 (0.53, 1.22) 0.219 0.95 (0.87, 1.04) 0.92 (0.82, 1.04)
Grain, range <5.11 5.11-7.40 7.50-10.0 10.1-14.4 >14.4
Crude Ref. 0.81 (0.55, 1.18) 0.72 (0.51, 1.03) 0.86 (0.62, 1.12) 0.84 (0.56, 1.26) 0.485 0.97 (0.79, 1.18) 1.00 (0.82, 1.22)
Model 1 Ref. 0.76 (0.51, 1.12) 0.80 (0.54, 1.20) 0.83 (0.59, 1.18) 0.82 (0.52, 1.30) 0.275 1.00 (0.81, 1.22) 1.02 (0.83, 1.24)
Model 2 Ref. 0.78 (0.53, 1.15) 0.82 (0.56, 1.22) 0.87 (0.62, 1.22) 0.84 (0.54, 1.30) 0.317 1.00 (0.81, 1.22) 1.01 (0.82, 1.24)
Animal-derived, range <14.6 14.7-27.3 27.4-41.0 41.1-61.6 >61.7
Crude Ref. 1.02 (0.69, 1.52) 0.73 (0.49, 1.08) 0.97 (0.60, 1.42) 1.01 (0.69, 1.48) 0.956 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 1.03 (0.99, 1.08)
Model 1* Ref. 0.94 (0.67, 1.33) 0.69 (0.44, 1.07) 0.73 (0.50, 1.06) 0.74 (0.44, 1.25) 0.043 0.95 (0.82, 1.09) 0.94 (0.81, 1.10)
Model 2* Ref. 1.02 (0.72, 1.44) 0.76 (0.47, 1.23) 0.82 (0.55, 1.24) 0.85 (0.48, 1.51) 0.246 0.97 (0.84, 1.12) 0.97 (0.83, 1.13)

Model 1: Adjusted simultaneously for total food, vegetable, fruit, and grain (but not animal-derived foods) expenditures, gender, age (y), ethnicity (Fukienese, Hakka, mainlander, indigenous), personal education (illiterate, primary and below, secondary education and above), living arrangement (lived alone, lived with spouse), personal income (<5000, 5000–19,999, ≥20,000 NTD/month), smoking (yes, no), alcohol drinking (yes, no), health status (good, fair, poor), physical activity (<1.5, 1.5-3, >3 MET/day), chewing ability (satisfactory, unsatisfactory), body mass index (<18.5, 18.5-23.9, 24–26.9, ≥27 kg/m2), diabetes mellitus (yes, no), and energy (kcal).

Model 2: Further adjusted for dietary diversity score.

*These models for animal-derived foods have also been adjusted for the same variables as for Models 1 and 2, except for grains.

All subjects who died in the first year of follow-up were excluded.

Lo et al.

Lo et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:113   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-113

Open Data