Table 1

Characteristics of participants

Validation study

Reproducibility study

(n = 58)


All participants (n = 167)

S Hospital

(n = 76)

T Hospital

(n = 91)



Mean ± SD or n (%)

Mean ± SD or n (%)

Mean ± SD or n (%)

p1

Mean ± SD or n (%)


Age [years]

32.4 ± 4.9

30.5 ± 5.0

34.1 ± 4.1

< 0.001

33.8 ± 4.2

Parity: Primigravida [n (%)]

80

(48)

34

(45)

46

(51)

ns

38

(66)

Currently married [n (%)]

166

(99)

75

(99)

91

(100)

ns

58

(100)

Education [n (%)]

< 13 years

32

(19)

25

(33)

7

(8)

< 0.001

3

(5)

13-15 years

75

(45)

37

(49)

38

(42)

24

(41)

> 15 years

60

(36)

14

(18)

46

(51)

31

(53)

Household income (Japanese yen/year) [n (%)]

< 5,000,000

59

(35)

38

(50)

21

(23)

< 0.001

7

(12)

5,000,000-9,000,000

70

(42)

32

(42)

38

(42)

27

(47)

> 9,000,000

38

(23)

6

(8)

32

(35)

24

(41)

Height [cm]

158.7 ± 5.7

157.8 ± 5.2

159.5 ± 5.9

0.048

159.1 ± 5.4

Prepregnancy BMI2 [kg/m2]

20.5 ± 2.3

20.6 ± 2.3

20.3 ± 2.4

ns

20.2 ± 3.0

BMI < 18.5 [n (%)]

28

(17)

8

(11)

20

(22)

ns

17

(29)

18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 [n (%)]

131

(78)

65

(86)

66

(73)

38

(65)

BMI ≥ 25.0 [n (%)]

8

(5)

3

(4)

5

(6)

3

(5)

Working [n (%)]

66

(40)

21

(28)

45

(50)

0.004

22

(38)

Regular smoker during pregnancy [n (%)]

3

(2)

1

(1)

2

(2)

ns

1

(2)

Regular alcohol drinker during pregnancy [n (%)]

5

(3)

2

(3)

3

(3)

ns

2

(3)

Nausea during the study period [n (%)]

46

(28)

15

(20)

31

(34)

0.039

10

(17)

Gestational age [weeks]

22.6 ± 2.8

25.4 ± 1.0

20.3 ± 1.2

< 0.001

Gestational age at first survey [weeks]

16.9 ± 1.5

Gestational age at second survey [weeks]

21.0 ± 1.3


1Student's t-test or the chi-square test 2BMI: body mass index

Shiraishi et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:15   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-15

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