Role of gut hormones in fasting (right) and postprandial (left) state. During fasting, occurs greater release of ghrelin from the stomach that acts in arcuate nucleus via vagus nerve stimulating hunger. During the fed state (postprandial), occurs release of anorexigenic hormones (GLP-1, OXM, PYY, CCK and GIP) that reach the arcuate nucleus via the brainstem and vagus nerve, activating the satiety. GLP-1: glucagon-like peptide 1, OXM: oxyntomodulin, PYY: peptide YY, CCK: cholecystokinin, GIP: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide.
Pimentel et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:22 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-22