Table 1

Summary of the main gut hormones that influence the energy homeostasis

Gut hormones (receptor)

Secretion site

Action


PYY (G protein-coupled receptors)

L cells of gut

↓ food intake and delays gastric emptying

GLP-1 (GLP-1R)

L cells of gut

↓ food intake, releases insulin, hand out as incretin, ↓ glucose levels and delays gastric emptying

OXM (GLP-1R)

L cells of gut

↓ food intake

CCK (CCK1 and CCK2)

I cell of small intestine

↓ food intake

Uroguanylin and Guanylin (GUCY2CR)

Intestinal epithelial cells

↓ food intake

GIP

K cells of gut

↓ food intake and glucose levels

PP (Y4 and Y5)

PP cells of pancreas

↓ food intake

Amylin (AMY 1-3)

β cells of pancreas

↓ glucose levels

Insulin (IR)

β cells of pancreas

↓ food intake and glucose levels

Glucagon (GCGR)

α cells of pancreas

↑ glucose levels and insulin secretion

Ghrelin (GHSR1)

Stomach

↑ food intake


PYY: peptide tyrosine tyrosine; GLP-1: glucagon-like peptide 1; PP: pancreatic polypeptide; OXM: oxyntomodulin; CCK: cholecystokinin; GHSR1: growth hormone secretagogue; GUCY2C receptors: guanylyl cyclase 2 C receptors; IR: insulin receptor; GIP: glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide.

Pimentel et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:22   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-22

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