Table 3 |
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Adjusted mean of metabolic parameters, body fat percentage and body mass index and adjusted Odd ratio of depression and metabolic risk factors by quartile of Mg intake | |||||
Variables | Quartile of Mg intake | P for | |||
Q1 (n = 52) | Q2 (n =53 ) | Q3 (n =52 ) | Q4 (n =53 ) | trend | |
Quartile range of Mg intake (mg/kg) | < 2.3 | 2.3 - 3.2 | 3.3 - 4.4 | ≧4.5 | |
Mean Mg intake (mg/kg) ^{2} | 1.8 ± 0.4 | 2.8 ± 0.3 | 3.7 ± 0.3 | 5.8 ± 1.4 | <0.001 |
Adjusted mean ^{3} | |||||
Metabolic parameters^{*} | |||||
HbA1c (%) | 7.3 ± 1.5 | 7.5 ± 1.5 | 7.2 ± 0.9 | 7.2 ± 1.2 | 0.838 |
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) | 45.3 ± 11.7 | 44.4 ± 10.2 | 47.5 ± 13.3 | 50.6 ± 12.9 | 0.006 |
Triglycerides (mg/dL) | 113.0 ± 51.3 | 113.5 ± 77.5 | 106.4 ± 15.4 | 92.0 ± 48.8 | 0.104 |
Systolic BP | 137.1 ± 15.3 | 136.2 ± 14.7 | 135.4 ± 15.4 | 132.9 ± 13.7 | 0.089 |
Diastolic BP | 78.6 ± 14.4 | 77.6 ± 11.7 | 77.8 ± 14.4 | 74.9 ± 12.5 | 0.117 |
Waist circumference (cm) | 95.6 ± 9.4 | 92.9 ± 8.0 | 91.0 ± 9.9 | 88.8 ± 8.1^{c} | <0.001 |
Body Fat percentage (%)^{*} | 33.0 ± 10.8 | 29.4 ± 9.0 | 28.8 ± 6.8 | 24.5 ± 8.5 | <0.001 |
Body mass index (kg/m^{2}) ^{*} | 27.2 ± 4.3 | 25.3 ± 3.4 | 25.1 ± 3.3 | 23.6 ± 3.0 | <0.001 |
Adjusted Odds ratio ^{4} | |||||
Depression (DSM-IV)≧5 symptoms ^{†} | 1.00 | 0.37 (0.16-0.88) | 0.44 (0.19-1.02) | 0.22 (0.08-0.57) | 0.003 |
Metabolic parameters^{*} | |||||
HbA1c (%)≧7.0 | 1.00 | 1.01 (0.41-2.50) | 1.33 (0.53-3.33) | 0.95 (0.34-2.66) | 0.907 |
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) < 40 for men or < 50 for women | 1.00 | 1.33 (0.57-3.10) | 0.99 (0.41-2.36) | 0.54 (0.20-1.44) | 0.162 |
Triglycerides (mg/dL)≧150 | 1.00 | 1.51 (0.49-4.65) | 1.91 (0.61-5.99) | 0.90 (0.23-3.48) | 0.963 |
Systolic BP≧130 /Diastolic BP≧80 | 1.00 | 0.84 (0.34-2.09) | 1.04 (0.40-2.73) | 0.60 (0.21-1.70) | 0.452 |
Waist circumference (cm) ≧80 for men or ≧90 for women | 1.00 | 0.41 (0.11-1.54) | 0.57 (0.14-2.27) | 0.09 (0.02-0.37) | 0.001 |
Metabolic syndrome | 1.00 | 2.10 (0.73-6.06) | 1.68 (0.60-4.70) | 0.49 (0.17-1.43) | 0.153 |
Body fat percentage (%)≧25 for men or ≧30 for women (obese) ^{*} | 1.00 | 0.80 (0.32-2.05) | 0.55 (0.21-1.44) | 0.21 (0.07-0.61) | 0.004 |
Body mass index (kg/m^{2})≧27 (obese) ^{*} | 1.00 | 0.63 (0.26-1.53) | 0.21 (0.07-0.61) | 0.09 (0.02-0.35) | <0.001 |
1. Abbreviations: Mg, magnesium; HbA1C, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; BP, blood pressure.
2. The means of four groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. Data are means ± SD. Significant difference (p < 0.05).
3. Correlation of Mg intake levels with metabolic parameters, body fat percentage and body mass index were examined in multiple linear regression analysis. Data are adjusted mean ± standard error (SE). Tests for linear trend were conducted by using the statement contrast in linear regression models. Statistically significant at p <0.05.
4. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between Mg intake levels with depression, metabolic risk factor, high body fat percentage and high body mass index status. Data are odds ratios (95% CIs). Tests for linear trend were conducted by modeling the odds of each quartile-defined category of magnesium intake as a continuous variable in logistic regression models. Statistically significant at p <0.05.
5. confounding factors.
^{*} indicates adjusted for sex, age, physical activity level, total energy intake (kcal/day), carbohydrate intake (% of energy), protein intake (% of energy), total fat intake (% of energy), smoking, and alcohol consumption.
^{†} indicates adjusted for sex and age.
Huang et al.
Huang et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:41 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-41