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Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk: further evidence for inverse relationship

Kashif Shafique1*, Philip McLoone2, Khaver Qureshi3, Hing Leung34, Carole Hart1 and David S Morrison2

Author affiliations

1 Institute of Health & Wellbeing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Public Health, University of Glasgow, 1 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8RZ, UK

2 West of Scotland Cancer Surveillance Unit, University of Glasgow, 1 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8RZ, UK

3 Urology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital, 1053 Great Western Road, Glasgow, G12 0YN, UK

4 Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow, G61 1BD, UK

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Citation and License

Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:42  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-42

Published: 13 June 2012

Abstract

Background

Higher consumption of coffee intake has recently been linked with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PC) incidence, although meta-analysis of other studies that examine the association between coffee consumption and overall PC risk remains inconclusive. Only one recent study investigated the association between coffee intake and grade-specific incidence of PC, further evidence is required to understand the aetiology of aggressive PCs. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study to examine the relationship between coffee intake and overall as well as grade-specific PC risk.

Methods

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6017 men who were enrolled in the Collaborative cohort study in the UK between 1970 and 1973 and followed up to 31st December 2007. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and overall, as well as Gleason grade-specific, PC incidence.

Results

Higher coffee consumption was inversely associated with risk of high grade but not with overall risk of PC. Men consuming 3 or more cups of coffee per day experienced 55% lower risk of high Gleason grade disease compared with non-coffee drinkers in analysis adjusted for age and social class (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.90, p value for trend 0.01). This association changed a little after additional adjustment for Body Mass Index, smoking, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, tea intake and alcohol consumption.

Conclusion

Coffee consumption reduces the risk of aggressive PC but not the overall risk.

Keywords:
Coffee; Prostate cancer; Incidence; Gleason grade; Risk factor