Table 2

Multivariate hazard ratios (HR) for overall prostate cancer by coffee consumption in 6017 men
All Prostate Cancers
Total n Hazard Ratio (95% CI)a p value Hazard Ratio (95% CI)b p value
Cups of coffee/day
0 2,628 (139) 1 1
1--2 2,059 (114) 0.89 (0.69, 1.16) 0.39 0.95 (0.72, 1.24) 0.70
≥3 1,330 (65) 0.81 (0.60, 1.09) 0.18 0.93 (0.66, 1.31) 0.66
Cups of coffee (continuous) 6,017 (318) 0.95 (0.87, 1.02) 0.12 0.96 (0.81, 1.13) 0.64
Age at screening
< 40 823 (30) 1 1
40-49 2,621 (129) 1.85 (1.24, 2.76) 0.003 1.73 (1.16, 2.59) 0.008
50-59 2,424 (150) 4.49 (3.01, 6.68) <0.001 4.13 (2.74, 6.22) <0.001
60-75 149 (9) 9.28 (4.36, 19.73) <0.001 8.21 (3.80, 17.72) <0.001
Cholesterol level 6,017 (318) 1.02 (0.91, 1.14) 0.71 1.01 (0.91, 1.13) 0.80
Systolic blood pressure 6,017 (318) 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 0.83 0.99 (0.99, 1.01) 0.57
BMI (kg m-2)
<25 (Under & Desirable) 2,967 (152) 1 1
25 – <30 (Overweight) 2,691 (148) 1.10 (0.88, 1.38) 0.41 1.11 (0.88, 1.40) 0.39
≥30 (Obese) 359 (18) 1.25 (0.77, 2.05) 0.37 1.28 (0.77, 2.11) 0.34
Alcohol intake (units/week)
0 1,892 (115) 1 1
1--10 1,740 (102) 0.97 (0.74, 1.27) 0.83 0.99 (0.75, 1.30) 0.92
11--21 1,213 (52) 0.83 (0.60, 1.15) 0.28 0.87 (0.62, 1.22) 0.42
> 21 1,172 (49) 0.94 (0.67, 1.32) 0.71 0.98 (0.69, 1.39) 0.92
Smoking
Never smoker 1,094 (68) 1 1
Smoker 3,492 (136) 0.92 (0.71, 1.27) 0.59 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) 0.65
Ex-smoker 1,430 (114) 1.43 (1.05, 1.93) 0.02 1.43 (1.05, 1.94) 0.02
Social Class
I&II 2,007 (122) 1 1
IIIN 1,220 (68) 0.88 (0.64, 1.22) 0.45 0.97 (0.68, 1.39) 0.88
IIIM 1,114 (75) 1.14 (0.85, 1.54) 0.38 1.16 (0.85, 1.58) 0.34
IV&V 1,676 (53) 0.97 (0.73, 1.29) 0.83 1.02 (0.74, 1.39) 0.92

Prostate cancer cases =318.

a = adjusted for age and social class, b = adjusted for age at screening, cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, BMI, alcohol intake, tea consumption, smoking status, social class. n = number of prostate cancer cases.

Shafique et al.

Shafique et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:42   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-42

Open Data