Table 1

Population characteristics, including information about the variables included in the adjustment model (n = 920)
Total population (n = 920) Population with water [As] < 1 μg/L (n = 707) Population with water [As] between 1 and 10 μg/L (n = 157) Population with water [As] > 10 μg/L (n = 56)
A. Continuous variables Mean ± 1SD Mean ± 1SD Mean ± 1SD Mean ± 1SD
 Toenail arsenic (μg/g) 0.122 ± 0.136 0.102 ± 0.096 0.149 ± 0.154 0.292 ± 0.297
 Water arsenic (μg/L) 2.711 ± 9.978 0.269 ± 0.225 3.806 ± 2.498 30.467 ± 27.942
 Age (years) 61.0 ± 10.0 61.1 ± 10.1 60.5 ± 9.9 61.7 ± 10.1
 Water consumption from household supply (L/d) 1.11 ± 0.77 1.11 ± 0.76 1.07 ± 0.75 1.17 ± 0.94
 Energy intake (kcal/d) 1919.1 ± 630.1 1907.3 ± 633.8 1934.8 ± 600.9 2024.6 ± 662.1
B. Categorical variables n % n % n % n %
 Sex
  Female 364 39.6 280 39.6 66 42.0 18 32.1
  Male 556 60.4 427 60.4 91 58.0 38 67.9
Smoking status
  Never smoked 298 32.4 224 31.7 57 36.3 17 30.4
  Has smoked 622 67.6 483 68.3 100 63.7 39 69.6
Season in which the toenail sample was collected
  Winter 186 20.2 142 20.1 30 19.1 14 25.0
  Spring 182 19.8 144 20.4 32 20.4 6 10.7
  Summer 268 29.1 191 27.0 52 33.1 25 44.6
  Fall 284 30.9 230 32.5 43 27.4 11 19.6
Case–control Status
  Control 227 24.7 179 25.3 33 21.0 15 26.8
  Bladder cancer 275 29.9 206 29.1 45 28.7 24 42.9
  Basal cell skin cancer 214 23.3 162 22.9 40 25.5 12 21.4
  Squamous cell skin cancer 204 22.2 160 22.6 39 24.8 5 8.9
Body mass index
  Normal (<25 kg/m²) 164 17.8 119 16.8 37 23.8 8 14.3
  Overweight (≥25 kg/m² & <30 kg/m²) 176 19.1 142 20.1 28 17.8 6 10.7
  Obese (≥30 kg/m²) 73 7.9 56 7.9 14 8.9 3 5.4
  Missing 507 55.1 390 55.2 78 49.7 39 69.6

Gruber et al.

Gruber et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:45   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-45

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