Table 2

Dietary factors that were significantly associated with toenail arsenic concentration (bold)a: Q-values ≤ 0.05 are noted with a * next to the P value
Variable Regression slopes
Crude (n = 920) Adjusteda(n = 914)
β(95% CI) Pvalue β(95% CI) Pvalue % changebQ1-Q3 males % changecQ1-Q3 females
A. Negative associations
Dietary lipids
 Total fat (g) -1.5E-03 (-3.0E-03, 3.5E-05) 0.056 -5.8E-03 (-8.4E-03, -3.2E-03) <0.001* -20.6 -16.4
 Animal fat (g) -1.8E-03 (-4.2E-03, 5.7E-04) 0.14 -4.2E-03 (-7.2E-03, -1.2E-03) 0.006 -9.3 -7.1
 Vegetable fat (g) -2.4E-03 (-5.1E-03, 3.0E-04) 0.081 -4.9E-03 (-8.5E-03, -1.3E-03) 0.008 -10.6 -8.7
 Total unsaturated fat
 Total monounsaturated fat (g) -3.6E-03 (-7.4E-03, 1.0E-04) 0.057 -1.2E-02 (-1.8E-02, -5.6E-03) <0.001* -17.0 -14.1
  Palmitoleic fatty acid (g) -4.4E-02 (-1.1E-01, 2.1E-02) 0.18 -1.0E-01 (-1.8E-01, -1.9E-02) 0.016 -8.1 -6.8
  Oleic fatty acid (g) -4.2E-03 (-8.3E-03, -7.6E-05) 0.046 -1.3E-02 (-2.0E-02, -6.4E-03) <0.001* -17.1 -13.5
  Total polyunsaturated fat (g) -5.5E-03 (-1.3E-02, 2.1E-03) 0.16 -1.8E-02 (-2.9E-02, -7.3E-03) 0.001* -13.2 -10.2
  Total n-6 fatty acidsd (g) -6.1E-03 (-1.4E-02, 2.2E-03) 0.15 -1.8E-02 (-2.9E-02, -6.5E-03) 0.002* -11.7 -9.7
  Linoleic fatty acid (g) -7.1E-03 (-1.6E-02, 1.6E-03) 0.11 -2.0E-02 (-3.2E-02, -8.7E-03) <0.001* -13.0 -10.2
  Linolenic fatty acid (g) -3.8E-02 (-1.2E-01, 4.1E-02) 0.35 -1.6E-01 (-2.7E-01, -5.4E-02) 0.003* -10.8 -9.3
  Arachadonic fatty acid (g) -4.3E-01 (-1.1E + 00, 2.1E-01) 0.19 -6.8E-01 (-1.3E + 00, -4.0E-02) 0.037 -5.3 -4.7
 Total saturated fat (g) -3.5E-03 (-7.5E-03, 4.8E-04) 0.084 -1.0E-02 (-1.6E-02, -4.5E-03) <0.001* -13.4 -10.8
  Lauric fatty acid (g) -1.2E-01 (-2.3E-01, -4.5E-04) 0.049 -1.7E-01 (-2.9E-01, -4.8E-02) 0.006 -6.5 -5.1
  Palmitic fatty acid (g) -6.7E-03 (-1.4E-02, 8.2E-04) 0.081 -2.2E-02 (-3.4E-02, -1.1E-02) <0.001* -15.5 -12.8
  Stearic fatty acid (g) -1.8E-02 (-3.3E-02, -3.0E-03) 0.018 -4.3E-02 (-6.5E-02, -2.1E-02 <0.001* -15.6 -12.8
 Steroid
  Cholesterol (mg) -2.9E-04 (-6.3E-04, 3.9E-05) 0.084 -5.0E-04 (-8.7E-04, -1.4E-04) 0.007 -7.3 -6.2
Protein
 Animal protein (g) -7.3E-04 (-2.7E-03, 1.3E-03) 0.47 -2.6E-03 (-5.0E-03, -1.5E-04) 0.037 -6.6 -6.4
Vitamins
 Retinole (IU) -3.2E-05 (-5.7E-05, -7.3E-06) 0.011 -2.9E-05 (-5.2E-05, -6.1E-06) 0.013 -3.8 -3.2
 Vitamin B12e (μg) -8.5E-03 (-1.6E-02, -1.1E-03) 0.024 -7.6E-03 (-1.5E-02, -5.2E-04) 0.035 -3.1 -2.3
Plant-compounds
 Beta cryptoxanthin (μg) -3.2E-04 (-6.6E-04, 2.9E-05) 0.072 -3.7E-04 (-6.9E-04, -5.1E-05) 0.023 -6.1 -6.4
B. Positive associations
Dietary lipids
 Total unsaturated fat
 Polyunsaturated fat
 n-3 Fatty acids (EPAf,DPAg,DHAh) (g) 0.035 1.4E-01 (4.6E-04, 2.8E-01) 0.049 3.5 3.4
 n-3 Fatty acidsi (EPA & DHA) (g) 1.8E-01 (1.3E-02, 3.4E-01) 0.034 1.5E-01 (1.6E-03, 3.0E-01) 0.048 3.4 3.6
 EPA (g) 4.7E-01 (9.2E-02, 8.4E-01) 0.015 4.0E-01 (5.9E-02, 7.4E-01) 0.022 3.7 3.7
 DPA (g) 2.9E + 00 (4.4E-01, 5.3E + 00) 0.021 2.2E + 00 (-6.7E-02, 4.4E + 00) 0.057 4.5 4.5
Elements
 Manganesee (mg) 3.9E-03 (6.8E-05, 7.7E-03) 0.046 5.1E-03 (-2.0E-03, 1.2E-02) 0.16 9.9 9.6
Alcohols
 Ethanol (g) 6.0E-03 (3.1E-03, 8.8E-03) <0.001* 6.6E-03 (4.0E-03, 9.2E-03) <0.001* 10.0 3.2

a Covariates included: sex, smoking status, season of toenail collection, case–control status, body mass index, age, daily intake of water from the household water source, total energy intake, and water arsenic concentrations for individuals with water arsenic concentrations ≥1 μg/L.

b predictions made using: male, never-smoker, control, median water arsenic concentration for those <1 μg/L, normal BMI, fall toenail collection, and mean age, calories, and water consumption for males with water arsenic < 1 μg/L.

c predictions made using: female, never-smoker, control, median water arsenic concentration for those <1 μg/L, normal BMI, fall toenail collection, and mean age, calories, and water consumption for females with water arsenic < 1 μg/L.

d without Gamma-Linolenic Fatty Acid.

e without supplements.

f Eicosapentaenoic Fatty Acid.

g Docosapentaenoic Fatty Acid.

h Docosahexanenoic Fatty Acid.

i without Alpha-Linolenic Fatty Acid.

Gruber et al.

Gruber et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:45   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-45

Open Data