Table 1

Comparison of male and female subjects based on coffee intake
Males Females
Parameters Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 p-value Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 p-value
0–4 5–8 9–12 0–4 5–8 9–12
times/week times/week times/week times/week times/week times/week
N 60 16 75 83 22 70
Age(years) 13.2 ± 3.1 13.4 ± 2.5 11.6 ± 3.4 0.009 13.5 ± 3.2 12.0 ± 3.6 12.3 ± 3.3 0.035
BMI (kg/m2) 22.6 ± 8.2 22.9 ± 6.8 19.5 ± 5.1 0.020 23.1 ± 7.1 18.6 ± 4.0 21.3 ± 6.4 0.016
Sun Exposure (%) (Daily/weekly) 60/25 31/50 44/36 0.16 20.7/26.5 22.7/50.0 28.5/50.0 0.001
Physical Activity (%)(moderate/Active) 20/46.6 25/62.5 10.6/64.0 0.14 13.2/65.0 22.7/68.1 15.7/67.1 0.39
Waist (cm) 67.4 ± 30.0 72.3 ± 14.6 63.7 ± 15.1 0.343 65.5 ± 23.0 62.4 ± 10.0 68.2 ± 12.4 0.413
Hips (cm) 78.3 ± 30.6 89.3 ± 16.4 77.6 ± 20.1 0.246 82.2 ± 24.4 79.4 ± 13.7 86.4 ±15.4 0.299
LBM (kg) 40.8 ± 15.2 34.2 ± 10.0 32.1 ± 12.8 0.010 34.1 ± 9.2 27.4 ± 8.9 31.3 ± 8.9 0.015
SLM (kg) 36.2 ± 14.3 31.8 ± 9.5 28.9 ± 12.3 0.011 32.0 ± 9.4 25.3 ± 8.4 28.8 ± 8.4 0.010
Glucose (mmol/l) 5.2 ± 0.77 5.4 ± 1.0 5.3 ± 0.60 0.193 5.0 ± 0.85 5.0 ± 0.65 5.1 ± 0.52 0.299
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.94 ± 0.05 1.1 ± 0.08 0.80 ± 0.04 0.111 0.94 ± 0.08 0.78 ± 0.02 0.86 ± 0.03 0.243
HDL (mmol/l) 0.89 ± 0.35 1.05 ± 0.20 1.1 ± 0.26* 0.022 1.02 ± 0.31 1.1 ± 0.19 1.2 ± 0.25* 0.034
LDL(mmol/l) 2.9 ± 0.68 2.8 ± 0.58 2.5 ± 0.57* 0.008 2.9 ± 0.66 2.6 ± 0.57 2.7 ± 0.60 0.088
T. Cholesterol(mmol/l) 4.3 ± 1.5 4.2 ± 0.65 3.8 ± 0.62* 0.043 4.3 ± 0.65 3.9 ± 0.56 4.1 ± 0.66 0.061
Serum Ca (mmol/l) 2.5 ± 0.26 2.5 ± 0.16 2.6 ± 0.16* 0.008 2.4 ± 0.19 2.6 ± 0.12 2.5 ± 0.20 0.100
Corrected Ca (mmol/l) 2.6 ± 0.32 2.6 ± 0.39 2.6 ± 0.24 0.582 2.4 ± 0.38 2.5 ± 0.10 2.5 ± 0.20 0.931
Albumin (gm/L) 45.5 ± 4.5 45.8 ± 4.0 45.1 ± 3.2 0.891 44.8 ± 3.4 46.5 ± 2.7 44.3 ± 3.6 0.050
Serum Phosphorus 1.6 ± 0.63 1.5 ± 0.30 1.6 ± 0.38 0.891 1.4 ± 0.9 1.4 ± 0.24 1.3 ± 0.30 0.481
Vitamin D (nmol/l) 24.0 ± 1.5 20.7 ± 1.3 25.4 ± 1.6 0.212 16.7 ± 1.6 19.4 ± 1.5 20.5 ± 1.5* 0.020

Data represented by Mean ± standard deviation;

‘†’Represents Analysis of Co variance (ANCOVA) is done across the coffee drinkers, Adjusted for age and BMI.

Al-Othman et al.

Al-Othman et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:56   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-56

Open Data