Table 2

Socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric characteristics, according to dietary patterns
Women Men
“healthy" “low fruit and vegetables” “red meat and alcohol” “In transition to fast-food” p “healthy” “fish” “red meat and alcohol” “intermediate” p
mean (SD)
Age, years 58 (15)a,b,d 51 (15)a 52 (14)bc 48 (14)c,d p < 0.001 55 (19)a 55 (13)b 48 (14)a,b,c 54 (17)c p < 0.001
Education, years* 6 (8) 9 (11) 4 (7) 9 (11) p < 0.001 9 (11) 9 (9) 9 (8) 9 (8) p = 0.426
Body mass index, kg/m2 27.1 (4.5) 27.4 (5.4) 27.8 (5.8)a 26.6 (5.0)a p = 0.018 25.7 (3.9)a,b 26.6 (3.5)a 26.8 (4.1)b 25.7 (4.3) p = 0.006
Waist circumference, cm 86.6 (11.9)b 87.2 (14.5) 88.0 (13.7)a 84.2 (12.5)a,b p < 0.001 91.0 (10.9)a 93.8 (10.1)a 93.6 (10.6) 91.7 (11.7) p = 0.015
Waist/Hip 0.85 (0.08)b 0.85 (0.08) 0.86 (0.08)a 0.83 (0.08)a,b p < 0.001 0.91 (0.07)a,b 0.94 (0.09)a 0.94 (0.06)b 0.93 (0.08) p = 0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 139 (26)c 138 (26)a 136 (26)b 130 (24)a,b,c p < 0.001 135 (21) 136 (20) 135 (22) 138 (21) p = 0.555
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 83 (11) 85 (13)a 83 (13) 81 (12)a p = 0.002 82 (11) 83 (11) 84 (11) 83 (10) p = 0.219
Total cholesterol, g/L 2.21 (0.50) 2.21 (0.48) 2.21 (0.49) 2.15 (0.42) p = 0.114 2.00 (0.47)a,b 2.20 (0.46)a 2.22 (0.47)b 2.13 (0.44) p < 0.001
HDL cholesterol, g/L 0.61 (0.13) 0.60 (0.18) 0.59 (0.14) 0.60 (0.15) p = 0.372 0.50 (0.14) 0.50 (0.13) 0.51 (0.13) 0.49 (0.13) p = 0.683
LDL cholesterol, g/L 1.38 (0.44) 1.39 (0.42) 1.38 (0.47) 1.34 (0.39) p = 0.248 1.28 (0.42)a,b 1.42 (0.41)a 1.43 (0.41)b 1.37 (0.40) p = 0.001
Fasting glucose, g/L* 0.89 (0.14) 0.89 (0.16) 0.89 (0.17) 0.87 (0.14) p = 0.106 0.91 (0.17) 0.93 (0.15) 0.92 (0.17) 0.93 (0.14) p = 0.335
Triglycerides, g/L* 0.97 (0.67) 0.91 (0.65) 0.98 (0.67) 0.87 (0.58) p = 0.009 0.98 (0.70) 1.16 (0.88) 1.19 (0.97) 1.03 (0.99) p < 0.001
Physical activity, mets*minute/day* 34.4 (5.0) 34.2 (6.6) 34.5 (6.7) 35.0 (5.6) p = 0.010 34.3 (5.6) 34.3 (5.7) 34.1 (10.1) 33.5 (5.9) p = 0.031
BDI* 8.0 (10.0) 10.0 (14.0) 8.0 (10.0) 7.0 (9.0) p = 0.011 5.5 (6.0) 5.0 (7.0) 5.0 (7.0) 7.0 (9.0) p = 0.108
n (%)
Current smoking 29 (9.1) 35 (29.4) 40 (15.3) 125 (19.8) p < 0.001 42 (23.0) 106 (29.7) 85 (46.2) 51 (45.1) p = 0.001
Current drinking 115 (36.3) 57 (47.9) 125 (47.7) 301 (47.6) p = 0.005 88 (48.1) 352 (98.6) 178 (96.7) 60 (53.1) p = 0.335
Regular physical activity 135 (42.6) 37 (31.1) 58 (22.1) 194 (30.7) p < 0.001 99 (54.1) 148 (41.5) 57 (31.0) 47 (41.6) p < 0.001
Marital status
   Married 189 (59.6) 59 (49.6) 181 (69.1) 391 (61.9) p < 0.001 141 (77.0) 314 (88.0) 146 (79.3) 81 (71.7) p < 0.001
   Single 38 (12.0) 28 (23.5) 34 (13.0) 116 (18.4) 29 (15.8) 18 (5.0) 25 (13.6) 17 (15.0)
   Widower 71 (22.4) 20 (16.8) 35 (13.4) 61 (9.7) 7 (3.8) 10 (2.8) 7 (3.8) 5 (4.4)
   Divorced 19 (6.0) 12 (10.1) 12 (4.6) 64 (10.1) 6 (3.3) 15 (4.2) 6 (3.3) 10 (8.8)
Menopausal 223 (70.6) 72 (61.5) 145 (55.3) 283 (44.8) p < 0.001 - - -

BDI - Beck Depression Inventory.

a,b,c – groups between which there were significant associations.

* Due to the non normal distribution, the median and the interquartile range (IQR) are presented.

Fonseca et al.

Fonseca et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:64   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-64

Open Data