Table 2

Summary of 10 included probiotic studies
Probiotic studies Location Inclusion criteria Treatment used in study groups, n = Treatment duration Reported outcomes
Brunser 200638 Santiago - Chile 37 – 42 weeks gestation 3000 – 4200 g birth weight 1) Probiotic: L Johnsonii La1 108 cfu/ g powder n=25 13 weeks Average formula intake (ml/kg)
2) Prebiotic: FOS 2g n= 32/L Fecal excretion of bifidobacteria, Lctobacillus, Enterobacteria (Log10(CFU)/g stool)
3) Breastfeeding n= 26
4) In Placebo group: Conventional infant formula no probiotic or prebiotic n= 33
Chouraqui 200440 France Infants < 8 months 1) Probiotic: B. lactis Strain Bb12 1.5 × 106 cfu/g powder, n=46 148 days Diarrhea, stools/day, Spitting, regurgitation
2) In Placebo group: Conventional infant formula no probiotic or prebiotic, n=44
Gibson 200944 Adelaide -Australia > 37 weeks gestation, birth weight 2500–4500 g,<10 days old 1) Probiotic group: Bifibacterium lactis. 3.85 × 108 cfu/g 100kcal, n= 72 7 months Growth: Weight, length, head circumference
Stool characteristics (data not shown)
2) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula no probiotic, n=70 Stools, colic, spitting up, vomiting and restlessness
Mean daily volume of formula intake
GI infections, Respiratory infections
Haschke-Becher 200845 Santiago - Chile 36 - 44 weeks gestation, birth weight > 2500 g at 16 weeks of age 1) Probiotic group: Lactobacillus Johnsonii 1 × 108 cfu/g powder yielding 0.8 to 1.1 × 108 cfu/ 200 mls formula, n= 17 4 weeks Growth: Weight, length, Formula intake
Langhendries 199546 Belgium, St Joseph-Montegnee-Rocourt Healthy Full term infants 1) Probiotic group: Bifibacterium Bifidum 106 cfu/g powder, n= 20 2 months Bifidobacteria, Bacteriodes, Enterobacteria Log10 (CFU) / g of faeces
2) Placebo group: conventional infant formula no probiotic, n= 20
3) Reference group: Human milk, n= 14
Petschow 200548 Iowa, USA Healthy full term infants, weight >2500g, appropriate for gestational age (0–3 months of age) 1) Probiotic group: Lactobacillus GG 1 × 106 cfu/g powder yielding 108 cfu/day, n=15 7 day baseline, 14 days treatment period, 14 days follow up Stool frequency, stool consistency
2) Probiotic group: Lactobacillus GG 1 × 107 cfu/g powder yielding 109 cfu/day, n= 14
3) Probiotic group: Lactobacillus GG 1 × 108 cfu/g powder yielding 1010 cfu/day, n= 15
4) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula no probiotic, n= 15
Urban 200850 Johanesburg South Africa 37 - 42 weeks gestation, 2500–4200 g birth weight, born to HIV+ mothers but infants tested HIV- 1) Probiotic group Acidified formula and Bifidobacterium lactis n= 29 (cfu/g powder is not specified) 4 months (119 days) Growth: Males: Weight gain, length and head circumference
Females: Weight gain, length and head circumference
2) No probiotic group: Acidified formula no probiotic, n= 28
3) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula, (whey adapted formula), n= 28
Weizman 200551 Beer - Sheva Israel > 38 weeks gestation, 4–10 months old 1) Probiotic group: Bifidobacterium Lactis (BB-12) 1 × 107 cfu/g powder, n= 73 12 weeks Episodes of diarrhea,
Volume of feed / day
2) Probiotic group: Lactobacillus reuteri 1 × 107 cfu/g powder, n= 68 Episodes of respiratory illness, antibiotic use, clinic visits
3) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula no probiotic, n= 60
Weizman 200652 Beer - Sheva Israel > 38 weeks gestation, < 4 months (3–65 days of age) 1) Probiotic group: Bifidobacterium Lactis (BB-12) 1 × 107 cfu/g powder yielding 2.2 × 108 cfu/180 mls reconstituted formula, n= 20 4 weeks Growth: Weight, length, head circumference (final percentiles)
Stooling effort score, stooling consistency score
2) Probiotic group: Lactobacillus reuteri 1 × 107 cfu/g powder yielding 2.2 × 108 cfu/180 mls reconstituted formula , n= 20 Daily crying score and daily crying episodes
Formula volume (mls/kg)
3) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula no probiotic, n=19
Ziegler 200355 Iowa USA ≥ 37 weeks gestation, Birth weight 2500g - 4500g (6–10 days of age) 1) No probiotic group: Reduced Protein formula no probiotic or prebiotic n=40 112 days Growth: Males: Weight, length, Females, weight, length
2) Probiotic group: Reduced protein formula, Bifidobacterium lactis 3.6 × 107 cfu/g powder yielding 4.8 × 109 cfu/L reconstituted formula , n= 40 Stool consistency
Crying, colic (data not shown)
Hospitalization, diarrhea, diarrhea (No. of episodes)
3) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula, no probiotic, n=42

Mugambi et al.

Mugambi et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:81   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-81

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