Table 3

Summary of 12 included prebiotic studies
Prebiotic studies Location Inclusion criteria Treatment used in study groups, n = Treatment duration Reported outcomes
Bettler 200637 USA <14 days postnatal age, birth weight and current weight between 10–90 percentiles for age 1) Prebiotic group: FOS 1.5 g/L n=72 12 weeks Growth: Weight, length, Head circumference
2) Prebiotic group: FOS 3.0 g/L n= 74
3) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula no prebiotic, n=66
Bruzzese 200939 Milan, Napoli, Verona Italy 37 to 42 weeks gestation, > 2500g birth weight, 4 to 6 months old 1) Prebiotic group: GOS, FOS (ratio 9:1) 0.4 g/100 ml n= 96 12 months Growth, Weight, length. Stool consistency
2) Placebo group: conventional formula with no prebiotic, N= 105 Infections: diarrhea episodes / child 12 months, episodes of acute diarrhea, episodes of URTI, antibiotic use
Costalos 200841 Greece Birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles, no breastfeeding after age of 14 days 1) Prebiotic group: 90% G0S 10% LcFOS 0.4 g/100 ml n=70 6 weeks Growth: Weight gain, length and head circumference gain
2) Placebo group: Conventional formula no prebiotic n=−70 Stool frequency, consistency. GI Microflora: Bifidobacteria, E coli
Fanaro 200542 Ferrara, Italy Healthy full term infants, without antibiotic treatment 1) Prebiotic group: Acidic Oligosaccharides 0.2 g/dl, Maltodextrin 0.2 g/dl n= 16 6 weeks Growth: Weight and length gain. Stool consistency
2) Prebiotic group: Acidic Oligosaccharides 0.2 g/dl, Neutral GOS FOS 0.6 g/dl n= 15 Crying, regurgitation and vomiting episodes
3) Placebo group: Maltodextrin at 8g/dl n=15 Gi Microflora
Fanaro 200843 Ferrara, Turin Italy, Las Palmas, Seville Spain Appropriate for gestational age, birth weight > 1500g, 4 to 6 months old 1) Prebiotic group: GOS 5 g/L n= 56 18 weeks Growth: Weight, length
Stool frequency, consistency
GI microflora: Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, Bacteriodes,
Clostridia, Enterobacteriacae
Moro 200235 (Moro 2003, considered as one study) Milan Italy 39 to 40 weeks gestational age 1) Prebiotic group: GOS, FOS 0.4 g/dl n=30 28 days Growth: Weight and length gain
2) Prebiotic group: GOS FOS 0.8 g/dl n= 27 Stool frequency, consistency
3) Placebo group: Maltodextrin at 0.8g/dl n=33 Crying, regurgitation and vomiting
4) Reference group: Breast milk n=15 Feeding volume
GI microflora: Bifidobaceria, Lactobacilli
Moro 200547 Italy Healthy full term infants, appropriate for gestational age 1) Prebiotic group: GOS 0.8g/dl, n= 16 28 days Growth: Weight, length gain
2) Placebo group: Maltodextrin at 0. 8g/dl n=16 Feeding volume
GI microflora
Moro 200637 (Arslanoglu 2007, Arslanoglu 2008 considered as one study) Milan Italy 37 - 42 weeks gestational age 1) Prebiotic group: ScGOS Lc FOS at 8g/L, n= 104 6 months Growth: Weight gain, length gain, head circumference
2) Placebo group: Maltodextrin at 8g/L, n=102 Stool frequency, consistency
Crying, regurgitation and vomiting
GI microflora: Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli
Infectious episodes: Overall infections, URTI, Otis Media, GI infections, UTI, antibiotic use
Schmelzle 200349 Griefswald Germany 37 to 42 weeks gestational age, birth weight between 10 to 90 percentiles, exclusive formula feeding by age 14 days old 1) Prebiotic group: 90% GOS, 10% FOS 0.8/100ml n=76 12 weeks Growth: Males - Weight gain, length gain, head circumference
2) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula, no prebiotic, n=78 Females - Growth: Weight gain, length gain, head circumference
Volume of feed (formula)
GI microflora: Bifidobacteria
Xiao-Ming 200453 Nanjing China Healthy full term infants 1) Prebiotic group: Galactooligosaccharide 0.24 g/ dl n=69 6 months GI Microflora: Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, E coli
2) Prebiotic formula with Human milk n= 124
3) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula, no prebiotic, n=52
4) Reference group: Human milk n= 26
Xiao-Ming 200854 Nanjing China > 38 weeks gestation, Birth weight > 3kg 1) Prebiotic group 1: Galactooligosaccharide 0.24 g/ 100 ml n=37 3 months Growth: Weight gain, length gain
Stool consistency
2) Prebiotic group 2: Prebiotic formula with Human milk n= 58 Crying, regurgitation and vomiting scores
Volume of feed
3) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula, no prebiotic, n=45 GI Microflora: Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli, E coli
4) Reference group: Human milk n= 24
Ziegler 200756 USA > 37 weeks gestation, Birth weight 2500g, solely formula fed 1) Prebiotic group 1: Polydextrose, Galactooligosaccharide n=58 120 days Growth: Weight gain, length gain, head circumference
Stool frequency, consistency
2) Prebiotic group 2: Polydextrose, Galactooligosaccharide, Lactulose n= 48 Intolerance to formula: Vomiting, diarrhea, excessive spitting, colic
3) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula, no prebiotic, n=58

Mugambi et al.

Mugambi et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:81   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-81

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