## Table 4 |
|||||

Summary of 3 included synbiotic studies |
|||||

Probiotic studies |
Location |
Inclusion criteria |
Treatment used in study groups, n = |
Treatment duration |
Reported Outcomes |

Chouraqui 2008^{24} |
France (Marseille) | 37 – 42 weeks, gestation, ≤ 14 days singletons, 2500 – 4500g birth weight | 1) Probiotic group: Bifibacterium Longum BL999 1.29 × 10^{8} cfu/100 ml formula, L.Rhamnosus 6.45 × 10^{8 }cfu/100 ml formula, n=60 |
4 months, observation: 16 – 52 weeks | Growth: Length, Head circumference Stool frequency, consistency, Incidence of diarrhea during treatment period Frequency of infections |

2) Synbiotic group 1: Bifibacterium.Longum BL999 1.29 × 10^{8} cfu/100 ml, L Rhamnosus 6.45 × 108 cfu/100 ml, 90% GOS, 10% ScFOS 0.4 g/100 ml n=54 |
|||||

3) Synbiotic group 2: Bifibacterium Longum BL999 2.58 × 10^{8} cfu/100 ml, LParacasei 2.58 × 10^{8} cfu/100 ml, 90% GOS, 10% ScFOS 0.4 g/100 ml, n=60 |
|||||

4) Placebo group: Conventional infant formula no probiotic or prebiotic, n=53 | |||||

Puccio 2007^{25} |
Palermo Italy | Healthy Full term infants with gestational age 39 weeks | 1) Synbiotic group: Bifibacterium Longum BL 999 2 × 10^{7} Cfu/g powder, GOS 90% FOS 10% at 4g/L, n=42, n=67 |
112 days | Growth: Weight, length, head circumference |

Stool frequency (evacuations/day) | |||||

2) Conventional infant formula no synbiotic, n=55 | |||||

Crying, restlessness, colic, spitting and vomiting | |||||

Volume of feed tolerated | |||||

Frequency of respiratory tract infections | |||||

Vlieger 2009^{21} |
Niewegein, Netherlands | Healthy Full term infants with gestational age > 37 weeks, < 7 days, formula fed | 1) Synbiotic group: Bifibacterium animalis ssp Lactis 1 × 10^{7} Cfu/g powder, Lactobacillusn paracasei 1 × 107 Cfu/g powder, GOS 0.24 g/100 ml, n=67 |
6 months | Growth: Weight, length, head circumference |

2) Placebo group: Prebiotic infant formula GOS 0.24 g/100 ml, n=59 |

Mugambi * et al.*

Mugambi * et al.* *Nutrition Journal* 2012 **11**:81 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-81