Table 1

TAC values of food items included in the diet history questionnaire and the contribution (%) of dietary TAC among 443 Japanese women aged 18–22 years
Food group and item†‡ FRAP ORAC TEAC TRAP
TAC(mmol Fe2+/100 g) Contribution*(%) TAC(mmol TE/100 g) Contribution*(%) TAC(mmol TE/100 g) Contribution*(%) TAC(mmol TE/100 g) Contribution*(%)
Non-alcoholic beverages - 77.77 (66.79-85.02) - 67.18 (55.23-77.39) - 63.66 (51.56-74.41) - 77.65 (66.16-85.78)
  Green, barley, and oolong tea (including other Chinese tea) 1.41 || 57.31 (36.17-73.16) 1.86 46.97 (28.17-63.41) 0.54 || 36.75 (19.33-52.92) 0.69 || 46.47 (23.16-65.41)
  Coffee 3.23 § 3.16 (0.00-17.16) 4.24 § 2.68 (0.00-14.91) 3.14 § 6.22 (0.00-27.48) 5.60 § 10.15 (0.00-41.59)
  Black tea 0.97 § 0.00 (0.00-5.20) 1.48 0.00 (0.00-4.74) 0.36 § 0.00 (0.00-3.08) 0.49 § 0.00 (0.00-4.07)
  Cocoa 0.80 § 0.00 (0.00-1.70) 3.03 0.00 (0.00-4.07) 1.41 0.00 (0.00-5.40) 0.45 0.00 (0.00-1.68)
  Fruit juice (100%) 0.62 || 0.00 (0.00-0.94) 0.64 || 0.00 (0.00-0.62) 0.27 || 0.00 (0.00-0.63) 0.23 || 0.00 (0.00-0.45)
  Vegetable juice 0.38 || 0.00 (0.00-0.85) 0.48 § 0.00 (0.00-0.62) 0.17 || 0.00 (0.00-0.61) 0.16 || 0.00 (0.00-0.55)
  Tomato juice 0.48 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.43 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.17 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.13 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Fruit juice, excluding 100% juice 0.31 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.32 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.14 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.11 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
Vegetables - 7.50 (4.56-12.13) - 11.13 (7.29-16.19) - 8.61 (5.41-12.65) - 8.29 (5.11-13.38)
  Green leafy vegetables 1.08 || 2.27 (1.03-4.23) 1.53 || 2.02 (0.95-3.72) 0.69 || 2.28 (1.18-4.56) 0.48 || 1.50 (0.75-3.15)
  Cabbage 0.45 § 0.69 (0.30-1.19) 0.52 || 0.50 (0.22-0.85) 0.12 || 0.30 (0.13-0.54) 0.28 || 0.66 (0.29-1.25)
  Chinese cabbage 0.45 || 0.46 (0.22-1.09) 0.52 || 0.33 (0.17-0.76) 0.12 || 0.21 (0.11-0.46) 0.28 || 0.44 (0.22-1.14)
  Broccoli 0.96 § 0.45 (0.20-1.18) 1.48 || 0.45 (0.21-1.13) 0.30 || 0.24 (0.11-0.61) 0.31 || 0.25 (0.09-0.61)
  Onions 0.29 § 0.37 (0.19-0.70) 1.22 || 0.99 (0.52-1.78) 0.18 || 0.39 (0.19-0.71) 0.24 || 0.49 (0.24-0.94)
  Radishes 0.31 || 0.30 (0.15-0.61) 1.50 || 0.91 (0.47-1.81) 0.55 || 0.86 (0.47-1.73) 0.66 || 0.99 (0.50-2.05)
  Green peppers 1.02 § 0.24 (0.10-0.48) 0.93 § 0.14 (0.06-0.27) 0.84 || 0.34 (0.13-0.64) 0.55 || 0.21 (0.07-0.40)
  Mushrooms 0.22 || 0.19 (0.09-0.35) 0.65 || 0.35 (0.16-0.63) 0.49 || 0.70 (0.33-1.29) 0.63 || 0.88 (0.39-1.55)
  Tomatoes 0.27 § 0.18 (0.08-0.40) 0.39 § 0.16 (0.07-0.37) 0.17 § 0.18 (0.08-0.39) 0.13 § 0.14 (0.05-0.31)
  Lotus root 1.58 || 0.17 (0.00-0.36) 2.10 || 0.14 (0.00-0.31) - - - -
  Lettuce 0.27 § 0.11 (0.04-0.26) 0.32 § 0.08 (0.03-0.20) 0.13 § 0.08 (0.04-0.20) 0.23 § 0.14 (0.05-0.37)
  Carrots 0.10 || 0.10 (0.05-0.20) 0.33 || 0.21 (0.11-0.40) 0.04 || 0.07 (0.03-0.12) 0.07 || 0.12 (0.05-0.20)
  Other salted pickles 0.36 0.09 (0.03-0.27) 1.29 0.21 (0.07-0.58) 0.31 0.13 (0.05-0.35) 0.45 0.18 (0.06-0.52)
  Pumpkins 0.11 || 0.04 (0.02-0.08) 0.48 || 0.12 (0.04-0.23) 0.37 || 0.24 (0.09-0.46) 0.00 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Eggplants 0.18 || 0.03 (0.00-0.09) 0.25 || 0.02 (0.00-0.07) 0.11 || 0.03 (0.00-0.09) 0.28 || 0.06 (0.00-0.21)
  Cucumbers 0.05 § 0.01 (0.01-0.04) 0.21 § 0.04 (0.01-0.09) 0.04 § 0.02 (0.01-0.05) 0.00 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Salted pickled plums 0.45 || 0.01 (0.00-0.04) 3.62 0.07 (0.00-0.22) 0.47 0.03 (0.00-0.08) 0.75 0.04 (0.00-0.12)
  Cauliflower 0.80 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.85 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.11 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.16 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Burdock - - 5.22 || 0.87 (0.39-1.45) - - - -
  Bean sprouts - - 1.72 || 0.38 (0.19-0.88) 0.15 || 0.09 (0.04-0.20) - -
  Wakame and hijiki seaweed - - 0.45 0.21 (0.10-0.40) 0.15 0.18 (0.09-0.35) - -
  Laver (dried, edible seaweed) - - 6.11 || 0.03 (0.02-0.08) 2.30 || 0.03 (0.02-0.08) - -
Fruits - 3.67 (1.75-6.55) - 5.92 (3.05-10.17) - 3.12 (1.42-5.89) - 2.49 (1.10-4.40)
  Oranges 0.87 || 1.01 (0.36-2.62) 1.74 || 1.26 (0.47-3.15) 0.31 || 0.59 (0.22-1.46) 0.36 || 0.65 (0.23-1.67)
  Strawberries 2.16 § 0.97 (0.26-2.10) 3.67 § 1.03 (0.30-2.20) 1.69 § 1.26 (0.32-2.59) 0.86 § 0.60 (0.12-1.35)
  Apples 0.39 § 0.25 (0.06-0.69) 2.80 § 1.18 (0.30-2.89) 0.15 § 0.17 (0.04-0.40) 0.19 § 0.19 (0.04-0.51)
  Bananas 0.19 § 0.08 (0.00-0.21) 0.74 § 0.21 (0.00-0.52) 0.06 § 0.04 (0.00-0.11) 0.11 § 0.07 (0.00-0.20)
  Kiwi fruits 0.95 § 0.00 (0.00-0.30) 0.83 § 0.00 (0.00-0.17) 0.23 § 0.00 (0.00-0.12) 0.23 § 0.00 (0.00-0.10)
  Canned fruits 0.42 0.00 (0.00-0.08) 1.32 0.00 (0.00-0.17) 0.19 0.00 (0.00-0.07) 0.22 0.00 (0.00-0.07)
  Raisins 1.28 § 0.00 (0.00-0.07) 5.75 § 0.00 (0.00-0.20) 0.66 § 0.00 (0.00-0.06) 0.62 § 0.00 (0.00-0.04)
  Grapes 0.78 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 1.29 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.32 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.20 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Persimmons 0.49 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.74 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 6.86 0.00 (0.00-0.00) - -
  Peaches 0.24 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 1.92 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.17 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.15 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Pears 0.22 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 1.80 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.22 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.39 || 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Melons 0.18 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.24 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.09 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.10 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Watermelons 0.05 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.17 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.07 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.05 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
Sugar and confectioneries - 2.58 (1.38-5.58) - 2.94 (1.56-6.00) - 3.73 (2.02-7.63) - 1.11 (0.56-2.55)
  Chocolate 3.96 § 1.94 (0.98-4.63) 7.16 § 2.26 (1.13-5.28) 3.62 § 3.06 (1.54-6.83) 1.16 § 0.93 (0.42-2.33)
  Cookies and biscuits 0.42 || 0.11 (0.05-0.24) - - - - - -
  Japanese sweets with azuki beans 0.54 0.09 (0.03-0.16) 0.42 0.04 (0.01-0.08) 0.29 0.08 (0.02-0.14) 0.18 0.05 (0.01-0.09)
  Jam and marmalade 0.71 0.04 (0.00-0.13) 1.57 0.05 (0.00-0.18) 0.40 0.03 (0.00-0.13) 0.25 0.02 (0.00-0.08)
  Potato chips 0.59 § 0.04 (0.00-0.09) 2.09 0.09 (0.00-0.21) 0.25 0.03 (0.00-0.07) 0.26 0.02 (0.00-0.07)
  Japanese bread with a sweet filling 0.03 0.03 (0.01-0.07) 0.25 0.18 (0.07-0.36) 0.13 0.24 (0.10-0.47) - -
  Doughnuts 0.15 || 0.00 (0.00-0.09) - - - - - -
  Pancakes 0.15 || 0.00 (0.00-0.02) - - - - - -
  Jellies 0.01 || 0.00 (0.00-0.01) - - - - - -
Cereals - 1.63 (0.96-3.33) - 1.21 (0.41-3.00) - 4.88 (3.25-7.86) - 7.34 (4.22-12.05)
  Well-milled rice 0.02 § 0.38 (0.20-0.68) - 0.10 3.21 (1.60-5.50) 0.18 5.36 (2.39-10.26)
  White bread 0.20 § 0.31 (0.16-0.67) - - - - - -
  Japanese noodles (buckwheat and   Japanese wheat noodles) 0.12 0.18 (0.04-0.38) 0.65 0.62 (0.14-1.31) 0.19 0.49 (0.11-1.00) 0.12 0.28 (0.05-0.63)
  Spaghetti 0.03 § 0.05 (0.02-0.11) - - 0.08 0.22 (0.07-0.46) 0.06 0.15 (0.05-0.36)
  Pizza 0.20 § 0.00 (0.00-0.15) - - - - - -
  Cornflakes 0.93 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 2.36 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.22 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.18 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Brown rice 0.27 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 1.14 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.18 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.22 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Half-milled rice 0.21 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.60 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.14 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.20 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Well-milled rice mixed with barley 0.15 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.39 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.10 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.14 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  70% milled rice 0.13 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.25 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.12 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.18 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Well-milled rice with germ 0.10 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.13 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.11 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.18 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
Oils - 0.98 (0.56-1.62) - - - 0.36 (0.24-0.53) - -
  Oil used during cooking 0.44 0.43 (0.28-0.65) - - 0.22 || 0.36 (0.24-0.53) - -
  Mayonnaise 1.08 § 0.26 (0.00-0.62) - - - - - -
  Margarine 1.05 § 0.05 (0.00-0.16) - - - - - -
  Salad dressing 0.25 § 0.05 (0.00-0.16) - - - - - -
Nuts and pulses - 0.93 (0.53-1.65) - 3.49 (2.11-5.97) - 7.70 (4.49-12.55) - 0.07 (0.00-0.21)
  Natto (fermented soybeans) 0.40 0.22 (0.07-0.69) 2.27 0.82 (0.28-2.50) 2.05 2.02 (0.61-5.81) - -
  Tofu (soybean curd) 0.09 || 0.12 (0.05-0.25) 0.79 0.66 (0.30-1.42) 0.71 1.55 (0.69-3.37) - -
  Miso for miso soup 0.31 0.12 (0.04-0.23) 1.72 0.43 (0.16-0.77) 1.55 1.03 (0.33-1.94) - -
  Boiled beans 0.34 0.06 (0.00-0.13) 2.09 0.23 (0.00-0.49) 0.96 0.28 (0.00-0.62) - -
  Tofu (soybean curd) products 0.36 0.00 (0.00-0.13) 2.05 0.00 (0.00-0.47) 1.85 0.00 (0.00-1.13) - -
  Peanuts 1.20 § 0.00 (0.00-0.10) 3.17 § 0.00 (0.00-0.17) 0.48 § 0.00 (0.00-0.07) 0.33 § 0.00 (0.00-0.05)
  Other nuts 0.84 || 0.00 (0.00-0.08) 4.69 || 0.00 (0.00-0.27) 4.76 0.00 (0.00-0.71) 1.08 || 0.00 (0.00-0.16)
  Miso as seasoning 0.31 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 1.72 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 1.55 0.00 (0.00-0.00) - -
Seasonings - 0.79 (0.42-1.30) - 0.33 (0.19-0.53) - 0.74 (0.42-1.14) - 0.00 (0.00-0.04)
  Soy sauce 1.68 || 0.75 (0.39-1.25) 1.06 0.31 (0.17-0.48) 0.96 0.71 (0.40-1.12) - -
  Tomato ketchup 0.37 § 0.00 (0.00-0.06) 0.58 § 0.00 (0.00-0.05) 0.15 || 0.00 (0.00-0.04) 0.17 || 0.00 (0.00-0.04)
Potatoes - 0.40 (0.22-0.73) - 1.30 (0.73-2.28) - 0.36 (0.19-0.63) - 0.24 (0.11-0.48)
  Sweet potatoes, yams, and taro 0.21 || 0.13 (0.07-0.27) 1.08 || 0.43 (0.22-0.86) 0.09 § 0.09 (0.05-0.18) - -
  Potatoes 0.13 § 0.13 (0.06-0.28) 0.67 § 0.42 (0.21-0.89) 0.08 § 0.13 (0.07-0.28) 0.09 § 0.00 (0.06-0.33)
  French fries 0.26 § 0.06 (0.00-0.13) 1.24 0.17 (0.00-0.39) 0.15 0.05 (0.00-0.12) 0.16 0.05 (0.00-0.13)
  Konnyaku (devil’s tongue jelly) 0.04 0.01 (0.00-0.01) 0.20 0.03 (0.01-0.04) 0.01 0.00 (0.00-0.01) - -
Alcoholic beverages - 0.00 (0.00-0.00) - 0.00 (0.00-0.00) - 0.00 (0.00-0.00) - 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Wine 1.41 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 1.17 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.63 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.82 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Whiskey 0.25 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) - - 0.15 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.19 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)
  Beer 0.24 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) - - 0.10 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00) 0.00 § 0.00 (0.00-0.00)

TAC total antioxidant capacity, FRAP ferric reducing ability of plasma, ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity, TEAC Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TRAP total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, TE Trolox equivalent.

* Values are medians (interquartile ranges).

† These 84 food items from the 150 items in the diet history questionnaire were used in the present study. Among the remaining 66 food items, the following 54 were determined to contain no TAC value: all 15 items in fish and shellfish (dried fish; small fish with bones; canned tuna; eel; white meat fish; oily fish; red meat fish; ground fish meat products; shrimp and crab; squid and octopus; oysters: other shellfish; fish eggs; boiled fish and shellfish in soy sauce; and salted fish intestines); all 7 items in meat (ground beef and pork; chicken; pork; beef; liver; ham and sausages; and bacon); all 9 items in dairy products (full-fat milk; low-fat milk; skim milk; sweetened yogurt; nonsweetened yogurt; moderately sweetened yogurt; cheese; cottage cheese; and cream or creamer added to coffee); 5 items in other animal foods (ice cream [regular]; ice cream [premium]; ice cream [unspecified varieties]; butter; and eggs); and 18 items in other foods (sugar for coffee and black tea; sugar used during cooking; artificial sweeteners; candies, caramels, and chewing gum; non-oil dressings; table salt; salt used during cooking; corn soup; Chinese soup; soup consumed with noodles; water for miso soup; sake; shochu; shochu mixed with water or a carbonated beverage; lactic acid bacteria beverages; cola and sugar-sweetened soft drinks [including sports drinks]; sugar-free soft drinks and diet cola; and drinking water. The following 12 items could not assigned a TAC value for all four methods: instant noodles; Chinese noodles; butter roll; croissant; Japanese-style pancakes; rice crackers; snacks made from wheat flour; Japanese sweets without azuki beans; cakes; curry or stew roux and meat sauce; nutritional supplement drinks; and nutritional supplement bars.

‡ Food items were categorized into food groups according to our previous study [20]. Tomato ketchup and soy sauce were included in seasonings. Food groups and food items were listed in descending order according to the contribution to FRAP. Four food items not having a FRAP value were listed in descending order according to their contribution to ORAC.

§ TAC value was assigned an analytical value.

|| TAC value was assigned a substituted value.

¶ TAC value was assigned a calculated value.

Kobayashi et al.

Kobayashi et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:91   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-91

Open Data