Table 2

Characteristics of 443 Japanese women aged 18–22 years categorized by normal or elevated (cutoff 1 mg/L) serum CRP concentration*
Total (n = 443) Normal CRP (CRP <1 mg/L) (n = 418) Elevated CRP (CRP ≥1 mg/L) (n = 25) P
Serum CRP concentration (mg/L) 0.11 (0.06-0.23) 0.11 (0.06-0.20) 1.78 (1.29-3.06)
Age (years) 19 (19–20) 19 (19–20) 19 (19–20) 0.72
Body mass index (kg/m2) 21.0 (19.5-22.5) 21.0 (19.5-22.6) 21.7 (19.3-22.2) 0.99
Residential region 0.37
  North (Kanto and Tohoku) 268 (60.5) 250 (59.8) 18 (72.0)
  Central (Tokai and Hokuriku) 73 (16.5) 69 (16.5) 4 (16.0)
  South (Kyushu and Chugoku) 102 (23.0) 99 (23.7) 3 (12.0)
Size of residential area 0.75
  City with population ≥1 million 77 (17.4) 74 (17.7) 3 (12.0)
  City with population <1 million 329 (74.3) 309 (73.9) 20 (80.0)
  Town and village 37 (8.4) 35 (8.4) 2 (8.0)
Current smoking 0.86
  No 428 (96.6) 404 (96.7) 24 (96.0)
  Yes 15 (3.5) 14 (3.4) 1 (4.0)
Alcohol drinking 0.10
  No 248 (56.0) 230 (55.0) 18 (72.0)
  Yes 195 (44.0) 188 (45.0) 7 (28.0)
Dietary supplement use 0.33
  No 357 (80.6) 335 (80.1) 22 (88.0)
  Yes 86 (19.4) 83 (19.9) 3 (12.0)
Physical activity (total metabolic equivalents-hours/d) 33.2 (32.2-34.5) 33.2 (32.2-34.4) 33.3 (32.4-34.6) 0.57
Energy intake (kcal/d) 1718 (1475–1986) 1717 (1476–1976) 1795 (1347–1994) 0.99
Total n-3 PUFA intake (g/d)‡ 2.2 (1.9-2.6) 2.2 (1.9-2.6) 2.2 (1.9-2.6) 0.50
Dietary TAC‡
  FRAP (mmol Fe2+/d) 10.61 (7.42-16.06) 10.79 (7.55-16.33) 7.65 (5.47-11.68) 0.004
  ORAC (mmol TE/d) 16.78 (12.43-24.12) 17.30 (12.93-24.63) 13.00 (9.38-16.93) 0.003
  TEAC (mmol TE/d) 6.26 (4.67-8.83) 6.45 (4.73-8.92) 5.32 (3.66-6.01) 0.01
  TRAP (mmol TE/d) 6.71 (4.34-10.24) 6.85 (4.50-10.48) 4.47 (3.60-6.48) 0.01

CRP C-reactive protein, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, TAC total antioxidant capacity, FRAP ferric reducing ability of plasma, ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity, TEAC Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TRAP total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, TE Trolox equivalent.

* Values are medians (interquartile ranges) or numbers of subjects (%).

P value between normal CRP and elevated CRP groups. For continuous values, the Mann–Whitney signed-rank test was used; for categorical values, the chi-square test was used.

‡ Energy adjustment was performed according to the residual method.

Kobayashi et al.

Kobayashi et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:91   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-91

Open Data