Table 4

Results of the physiological test parameters before and after five weeks interventions with 3g/d omega-3 PUFA from fish oil and placebo, respectively
Physiological parameters Omega-3 Placebo
Before After Δ-Omega-31 Before After Δ- Placebo2 Δ3
Weigh (kg) 72.1±2.0 72.3±2.0 0.2±0.1 72.3±2.0 72.2±2.0 −0.1±0.1 ns
Systolic BP (mmhg)4 134±3 127±3 −7±2*** 132±3 131±3 −1±2 P≤0.05
Diastolic BP (mmhg)5 79.2±1.4 76.9±1.4 −2.24±1.0* 78.8±1.2 77.3±1.4 −1.46±0.8 ns
f-Glucose (mmol/L, n=37) 5.4±0.1 5.5±0.1 0.1±0.1 5.5±0.1 5.4±0.1 −0.1±0.1 ns
ΔGlucose peak (mmol/L) 4.2±0.2 4.0±0.2 −0.2±0.2 4.3±0.2 4.2±0.2 −0.1±0.2 ns
Glucose 90 min IAUC (mmol*min/L) 217±13 213±11 −4±1 225±10 226±11 1±10 ns
Insulin (pmol/L)6 35±3 40±3 5±2* 37±3 43±04 6±3 ns
FFA (mmol/L)7 0.28±0.02 0.26±0.02 −0.03±0.02 0.28±0.02 0.31±0.02 0.03±0.02 P=0.055
Triglycerides (mmol/L)8 1.63±0.10 1.45±0.09 −0.19±0.07* 1.58±0.10 1.66±0.11 0.08±0.07 P≤0.05
TNF-α (ng/L) 9.8±1.0 9.3±0.9 −0.48±0.44 8.9±0.8 8.5±0.8 −0.43±0.30 ns
Adiponectin (mg/L) 12±1 12±1 0±0 12±1 12±1 0±0 ns
Malondialdehyd (μmol/L) 2.0±0.1 2.0±0.1 0.1±0.1 1.9±0.1 2.0±0.1 0.1±0.1 ns

1 Changes (Δ) in test variables after 5 weeks PUFA supplementation compared with baseline (prior to start of PUFA). 2 Changes (Δ) in test variables after 5 weeks placebo supplementation compared with baseline (prior to start of placebo).

*: p < 0.05, ***: p < 0.001 (ANOVA) with respect to differences from baseline after 5 weeks intervention with PUFA.

: p < 0.05 (ANOVA) with respect to differences from baseline after 5 weeks intake of the placebo.

3 P-values for differences between effects of PUFA (Δ-PUFA) and effects of placebo (Δ- placebo).

4 The systolic blood pressure was significantly more suppressed after 5 weeks supplementation with omega-3 PUFA compared with after 5 weeks with placebo [F(1,36) = 4.56, p = 0.04, d = 0.46]. The systolic BP was significantly lower after, compared to prior to the omega-3 period [F(1,36) = 14.70, p = 0.0005, d = 0.33]. n=37 in the BP analysis due to one participant failed to rest prior to one measurement.

5 The diastolic BP was significantly lower after, compared to prior to the omega-3 period [F(1,36) = 5.27, p = 0.028, d = 0.26]. There was a tendency toward lower diastolic BP after, compared with prior to the placebo period [F(1,36) = 3.31, p = 0.08, d = 0.19].

6 The s-insulin concentrations were significantly higher after, compared to prior to the omega-3 period [F(1,37) = 6,14, p = 0.018, d = 0.28] and placebo period [F(1,37) = 4.11, p = 0.050, d = 0.30], respectively.

7 There was a tendency towards concentrations of FFA to be more suppressed compared with after the placebo [F(1,37) = 3.94, p = 0.055, d = ], however, the concentrations of FFA after 5 weeks supplementation with omega-3 PUFA did not differ compared to prior omega-3 PUFA.

8The concentrations of s-triglycerides were significantly lower after, compared to prior to the omega-3 period [F(1,37) = 6.87, p = 0.013, d = 0.32], and significantly more suppressed after 5 weeks supplementation with omega-3 PUFA compared with after the placebo [F(1,37) = 4.05, p = 0.05, d = 0.59 ].

Abbreviations: ns: no significant differences between Δ-PUFA and Δ- placebo (ANOVA), f: fasting. P: plasma. S: serum. IAUC: incremental area under the curve. BP: blood pressure.

Values are mean±SEM. Statistical evaluations are performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA general linear model). N = 38, except for evaluation of BP, (n = 37).

Nilsson et al.

Nilsson et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:99   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-99

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