|Results of the physiological test parameters before and after five weeks interventions with 3g/d omega-3 PUFA from fish oil and placebo, respectively|
|Systolic BP (mmhg)4||134±3||127±3||−7±2***||132±3||131±3||−1±2||P≤0.05|
|Diastolic BP (mmhg)5||79.2±1.4||76.9±1.4||−2.24±1.0*||78.8±1.2||77.3±1.4||−1.46±0.8||ns|
|f-Glucose (mmol/L, n=37)||5.4±0.1||5.5±0.1||0.1±0.1||5.5±0.1||5.4±0.1||−0.1±0.1||ns|
|ΔGlucose peak (mmol/L)||4.2±0.2||4.0±0.2||−0.2±0.2||4.3±0.2||4.2±0.2||−0.1±0.2||ns|
|Glucose 90 min IAUC (mmol*min/L)||217±13||213±11||−4±1||225±10||226±11||1±10||ns|
1 Changes (Δ) in test variables after 5 weeks PUFA supplementation compared with baseline (prior to start of PUFA). 2 Changes (Δ) in test variables after 5 weeks placebo supplementation compared with baseline (prior to start of placebo).
*: p < 0.05, ***: p < 0.001 (ANOVA) with respect to differences from baseline after 5 weeks intervention with PUFA.
†: p < 0.05 (ANOVA) with respect to differences from baseline after 5 weeks intake of the placebo.
3 P-values for differences between effects of PUFA (Δ-PUFA) and effects of placebo (Δ- placebo).
4 The systolic blood pressure was significantly more suppressed after 5 weeks supplementation with omega-3 PUFA compared with after 5 weeks with placebo [F(1,36) = 4.56, p = 0.04, d = 0.46]. The systolic BP was significantly lower after, compared to prior to the omega-3 period [F(1,36) = 14.70, p = 0.0005, d = 0.33]. n=37 in the BP analysis due to one participant failed to rest prior to one measurement.
5 The diastolic BP was significantly lower after, compared to prior to the omega-3 period [F(1,36) = 5.27, p = 0.028, d = 0.26]. There was a tendency toward lower diastolic BP after, compared with prior to the placebo period [F(1,36) = 3.31, p = 0.08, d = 0.19].
6 The s-insulin concentrations were significantly higher after, compared to prior to the omega-3 period [F(1,37) = 6,14, p = 0.018, d = 0.28] and placebo period [F(1,37) = 4.11, p = 0.050, d = 0.30], respectively.
7 There was a tendency towards concentrations of FFA to be more suppressed compared with after the placebo [F(1,37) = 3.94, p = 0.055, d = ], however, the concentrations of FFA after 5 weeks supplementation with omega-3 PUFA did not differ compared to prior omega-3 PUFA.
8The concentrations of s-triglycerides were significantly lower after, compared to prior to the omega-3 period [F(1,37) = 6.87, p = 0.013, d = 0.32], and significantly more suppressed after 5 weeks supplementation with omega-3 PUFA compared with after the placebo [F(1,37) = 4.05, p = 0.05, d = 0.59 ].
Abbreviations: ns: no significant differences between Δ-PUFA and Δ- placebo (ANOVA), f: fasting. P: plasma. S: serum. IAUC: incremental area under the curve. BP: blood pressure.
Values are mean±SEM. Statistical evaluations are performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA general linear model). N = 38, except for evaluation of BP, (n = 37).
Nilsson et al.
Nilsson et al. Nutrition Journal 2012 11:99 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-99