Table 1

General characteristics, antioxidant and pro-oxidant diet factors and iron biomarkers of the representative sample
All (n=815) Men(1) (n=390) Women(2) (n=425) p-value (1–2)
Age (years) (a) 41(30–54) 42(30.75-54) 40(29–53) 0.877
Age-group (years) %
  group I (18–29) 24.3(18.3-30.2) 23.3(14.6-31.9) 25.2(16.9-33.4) 0.595
  group II (30–44) 34.6(29.05-40.1) 36.4(28.5-44.3) 32.9(25.1-40.7) 0.333
  group III (45–64) 29(23.2-34.8) 28.7(20.3-37.1) 29.2(21.2-37.2) 0.946
  group IV (65–75) 12.1(5.7-18.5) 11.5(2.2-20.8) 12.7(3.8-21.6) 0.687
BMI (kg/m2) 27.1(26.6-27.3) 27.4(26.9-27.8) 26.7(26.1-27.2) 0.058
Underweight (BMI<18.5), % 1.4(0.6-2.2) 1.1(0.03-2.2) 1.7(0.4-2.9) 0.651
Normal (BMI: 18.5-25), % 37.3(33.8-40.7) 30(25.3-34.7) 43.9(39.1-48.7) <0.001
Overweight (BMI 25–30), % 36.8(33.4-40.2) 43.3(38.2-48.4) 30.8(26.3-35.3) <0.001
Obesity (BMI>30), % 24.5(21.4-27.5) 25.6(21.1-30.1) 23.6(19.4-27.7) 0.566
Lifestyle
  Alcohol drinkers (%) 41.7(38.3-45.1) 64.1(59.3-68.8) 21.2(17.3-25.1) <0.001
  Smokers (%) 34.2(30.9-37.4) 39.2(34.3-44) 29.6(25.2-33.9) 0.002
  Habitual physical activity (%) 47.6(44.1-51) 53.6(48.6-58.5) 42.1(37.4-46.7) 0.001
Education level (%)
  None 3.2(−3.4-9.8) 2.3(−7.5-12.1) 4(−5.3-13.3) 0.240
  Primary school 49.8(44.9-54.6) 50(42.9-57) 49.6(42.8-56.3) 0.922
  High school 34.4(28.8-39.9) 35.9(27.9-43.8) 32.9(25.1-40.6) 0.415
  University 12.6(6.2-19) 11.8(2.4-21.2) 13.4(46–22.2) 0.556
Energy and antioxidant and pro-oxidant diet factors
  Energy (kcal/d) 2195.1(2146.9-2243.1) 2567.1(2498.1-2636) 1865.8(1817.1-1914.4) <0.001
  SFA (g/d) 28.1(27.3-28.9) 32.3(31–33.6) 24.4(23.5-25.3) <0.001
  MUFA (g/d) 50.6(49.3-51.8) 58(56.2-59.9) 43.9(42.5-45.4) <0.001
  PUFA (g/d) (b) 11.8(11.7-11.9) 14.05(13.9-14.2) 10.1(9.5-10.7) <0.001
  Vitamin C (μg/d) (b) 85.5(85.3-85.7) 84.1(83.9-84.3) 86.8(86–87.5) 0.523
  Vitamin E (μg/d) (b) 11.4(11.2-11.5) 12.9(12.8-13.1) 10.1(10–10.3) <0.001
  β carotene (μg/d) (b) 2217.8(2217.7-2218) 2052.8(2052.6-2053.1) 2375.1(2374.8-2375.4) 0.028
  Retinol (μg/d) (a) 236.2(153.6-353.3) 256.2(159.1-372.3) 215.0(147–320.4) 0.001
  Non-heme iron (mg/d) (b) 6.1(5.9-6.2) 6.8(6.6-6.9) 6.4(6.2-6.5) 0.036
  Heme iron (mg/d) (b) 2.9(2.8-3.1) 3.4(3.2-3.5) 2.6(2.4-2.8) <0.001
  Vegetables (g/d) (a) 173.6(105–245.1) 176.6(104.1-247.2) 162.6(107.4-245.6) 0.302
  Fruit (g/d) (a) 193.3(90–310) 191.6(90–313.3) 193.3(86.6-306.5) 0.976
Iron biomarkers
  SI (μmol/L serum) 16.8(16.3-17.3) 19.1(18.3-19.7) 14.8(14.2-15.4) <0.001
  SF (μg/L serum) (b) 65.3(65.1-65.5) 114.2(113.9-114.4) 39(38.8-39.2) <0.001
  TFS (%) 33.9(32.7-35) 39.3(37.4-41.1) 28.9(27.7-30.1) <0.001
CRP (mg/L serum) (a) 1.4(0.5-3.2) 1.4(0.5-2.9) 1.5(0.5-3.4) 0.511

Values are means (IC 95%), percent (IC 95%), (a) median (P25-P75) or (b) geometric mean (IC 95%). Abbreviations: SFA saturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, SI serum iron, SF serum ferritin, TFS transferrin saturation, CRP C-reactive protein.

Romeu et al.

Romeu et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:102   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-102

Open Data