Table 1

Main characteristics of the population (n = 194)
Non-frail (n = 85) Pre-frail (n = 79) Frail (n = 30) Total P
Female sex (n = 128) 57.0 65.8 86.7 66.0 0.013a
Age [years] 82 (76–91) 84 (76–94) 86 (75–96) 83 (75–96) 0.000b
Living alone (n = 122) 50.6 59.5 80.0 63.3 0.025
Educational level§ 0.005
low (n = 83) 42.3 39.2 53.3 42.8
medium (n = 59) 23.5 31.6 46.7 30.4
high (n = 52) 34.1 29.1 0.0 26.8
BMI [kg/m2] 26.7 (21.0–35.0) 28.1 (20.9–35.3) 26.2 (18.6–36.1) 27.1 (18.6–36.1) 0.11
MMSE [points] 29 (25–30) 29 (24–30) 29 (25–30) 29 (24–30) 0.42
IADL [points] 8.0 (5.0–8.0) 8.0 (1.0–8.0) 7.0 (2.0–8.0) 8.0 (1.0–8.0) 0.000
Goes shopping independently (n = 151) 96.5 87.3 50.0 77.9 0.000
Cooks independently (n = 158) 88.4 82.3 73.3 81.3 0.13
More than 3 medications (n = 101) 35.7 51.9 69.0 52.2 0.005
CCI [points] 0.0 (0.0–5.0) 1.0 (0.0–3.0) 2.0 (0.0–4.0) 1.0 (0.0–5.0) 0.001
Chewing difficulties (n = 74) 10.7 26.6 40.0 38.0 0.001
Swallowing difficulties (n = 16) 2.4 12.7 10.0 8.3 0.044
Energy intake [kJ/d] 8.8 (4.4–12.6) 8.5 (4.6–14.9) 7.9 (3.4–13.7) 8.5 (4.4–14.9) 0.32
Energy intake [kJ/kg BW] 0.12 (0.07–0.22) 0.12 (0.05–0.23) 0.13 (0.07–0.20) 0.12 (0.05–0.23) 0.60

BW body weight, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index [12], IADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living [11], MMSE Mini Mental State Examination [10].

a Chi-square Test (for all categorial variables) b Kruskall-Wallis Test (all continuous variables).

In percent (all categorial variables) Median (min.-max.) (all continuous variables) § “low” = elementary school or no degree; “medium” = secondary school; “high” = university entrance diploma or higher degrees.

Bollwein et al.

Bollwein et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:109   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-109

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