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Open Access Research

Modulation of human postprandial lipemia by changing ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated (P/S) fatty acid content of blended dietary fats: a cross-over design with repeated measures

Tilakavati Karupaiah1 and Kalyana Sundram2*

Author Affiliations

1 National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia

2 Faculty of Health Sciences, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Nutrition Journal 2013, 12:122  doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-122

Published: 16 August 2013

Abstract

Background

Postprandial lipemia (PL) contributes to coronary artery disease. The fatty acid composition of dietary fats is potentially a modifiable factor in modulating PL response.

Methods

This human postprandial study evaluated 3 edible fat blends with differing polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P/S) ratios (POL = 0.27, AHA = 1.00, PCAN = 1.32). A cross-over design included mildly hypercholestrolemic subjects (9 men and 6 women) preconditioned on test diets fats at 31% energy for 7 days prior to the postprandial challenge on the 8th day with 50 g test fat. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were monitored at 0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 7 hr.

Results

Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations in response to POL, AHA or PCAN meals were not significant for time x test meal interactions (P > 0.05) despite an observed trend (POL > AHA > PCAN). TAG area-under-the-curve (AUC) increased by 22.58% after POL and 7.63% after PCAN compared to AHA treatments (P > 0.05). Plasma total cholesterol (TC) response was not significant between meals (P > 0.05). Varying P/S ratios of test meals significantly altered prandial high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations (P < 0.001) which increased with decreasing P/S ratio (POL > AHA > PCAN). Paired comparisons was significant between POL vs PCAN (P = 0.009) but not with AHA or between AHA vs PCAN (P > 0.05). A significantly higher HDL-C AUC for POL vs AHA (P = 0.015) and PCAN (P = 0.001) was observed. HDL-C AUC increased for POL by 25.38% and 16.0% compared to PCAN and AHA respectively. Plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations was significant (P = 0.005) between meals and significantly lowest after POL meal compared to PCAN (P = 0.004) and AHA (P > 0.05) but not between AHA vs PCAN (P > 0.05). AUC for LDL-C was not significant between diets (P > 0.05). Palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids in TAGs and cholesteryl esters were significantly modulated by meal source (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

P/S ratio of dietary fats significantly affected prandial HDL-C levels without affecting lipemia.

Keywords:
Postprandial lipemia; Dietary fats; P/S ratio; Lipoproteins