Table 3

Energy and macronutrient intakes by demographic and socioeconomic status
Total energy (Kcal) % Energy from carbohydrate % Energy from fat % Energy from protein
n Mean ± SD p-valuea Mean ± SD p- value Mean ± SD p- value Mean ± SD p- value
Overall 4920 2196 ± 650 65.5 ± 7.2 19.5 ± 5.6 14.8 ± 2.1
Participant characteristics
Age of woman
<=25 2393 2214 ± 658 0.03 65.8 ± 7.2 0.02 19.2 ± 5.6 0.01 14.8 ± 2.1 0.25
26-30 1688 2196 ± 644 65.2 ± 7.1 19.7 ± 5.5 14.8 ± 2.0
>30 836 2146 ± 637 65.3 ± 7.6 19.6 ± 5.9 14.7 ± 2.1
Ethnicity
Kinh 2489 2184 ± 648 0.17 65.2 ± 7.1 0.002 19.7 ± 5.5 0.001 14.8 ± 2.0 0.38
Minority 2429 2209 ± 652 65.8 ± 7.4 19.2 ± 5.7 14.8 ± 2.1
Occupation
Other 952 2252 ± 662 0.003 62.0 ± 6.7 <0.001 21.8 ± 5.2 <0.001 15.9 ± 2.0 <0.001
Farmer 3968 2183 ± 646 66.4 ± 7.1 18.9 ± 5.6 14.5 ± 2.0
Education (Highest grade completed)
0-5 404 2085 ± 658 0.001 68.4 ± 8.0 <0.001 17.3 ± 6.1 <0.001 14.0 ± 2.3 <0.001
6-9 2693 2194 ± 647 66.1 ± 7.0 19.1 ± 5.5 14.6 ± 2.0
10-12 1234 2214 ± 646 65.0 ± 7.0 19.8 ± 5.4 15.0 ± 2.1
College or higher 589 2248 ± 658 62.1 ± 6.9 21.7 ± 5.3 15.8 ± 2.1
Household characteristics
Food insecurity status
Moderate or severe 927 2064 ± 639 <0.001 67.9 ± 7.2 <0.001 17.7 ± 5.8 <0.001 14.2 ± 2.1 <0.001
Mild 611 2119 ± 624 66.4 ± 6.9 19.1 ± 5.6 14.4 ± 2.0
Secure 3382 2246 ± 651 64.7 ± 7.1 20.0 ± 5.5 15.0 ± 2.0
Socioeconomic status quintile
Poorest 982 2098 ± 668 <0.001 67.8 ± 7.6 <0.001 17.8 ± 5.9 <0.001 14.0 ± 2.1 <0.001
Poorer 985 2157 ± 620 66.9 ± 6.9 18.6 ± 5.5 14.4 ± 1.9
Middle 982 2168 ± 623 66.1 ± 6.7 19.1 ± 5.3 14.6 ± 1.9
Richer 979 2223 ± 632 64.5 ± 6.9 20.1 ± 5.4 15.1 ± 1.9
Richest 982 2341 ± 677 62.3 ± 6.7 21.6 ± 5.2 15.8 ± 2.0

aP-values are based on student T-test and ANOVA test.

Nguyen et al.

Nguyen et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:126   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-126

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