Table 4

Socioeconomic and demographic determinants of energy and macronutrient intakes
Total energy intake (Kcal/day) Percent energy from carbohydrate (%) Percent energy from fat (%) Percent energy from protein (%) Percent protein from animal sources (%)
β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value β 95% CI p-value
Participant characteristics
Age -2 (-6, 3) 0.47 -0.1 (-0.1, 0.0) 0.001 0.1 (0.0, 0.1) <0.001 0.00 (0.0, 0.0) 0.29 -0.1 (-0.2, 0.0) 0.001
Ethnicity (minority vs other) 43 (4, 81) 0.03 -0.1 (-0.5, 0.3) 0.63 0.0 (-0.3, 0.3) 0.95 0.2 (0.0, 0.3) 0.006 0.6 (0.0, 1.2) 0.05
Occupation (farmer vs other) 35 (-31, 100) 0.30 2.1 (1.4, 2.8) <0.001 -1.4 (-2.0, -0.9) <0.001 -0.7 (-0.9, -0.5) <0.001 -4.6 (-5.7, -3.5) <0.001
Education (Highest grade completed; ref = 0-5)
6-9 78 (9, 147) 0.03 -1.7 (-2.4, -0.9) <0.001 1.4 (0.8, 1.9) <0.001 0.4 (0.2, 0.6) <0.001 2.9 (1.8, 4.1) <0.001
10-12 43 (-34, 120) 0.27 -1.9 (-2.7, -1.0) <0.001 1.4 (0.8, 2.1) <0.001 0.5 (0.3, 0.8) <0.001 3.7 (2.5, 5.0) <0.001
College or higher 39 (-60, 138) 0.44 -2.1 (-3.2, -1.1) <0.001 1.5 (0.6, 2.3) <0.001 0.5 (0.2, 0.8) 0.007 3.2 (1.5, 4.8) <0.001
Household characteristics
Food Insecurity status (ref = moderate or severe food insecurity)
Mild 51 (-14, 117) 0.13 -1.1 (-1.8, -0.4) 0.001 1.1 (0.5, 1.6) <0.001 0.1 (-0.1, 0.3) 0.49 1.9 (0.8, 3.0) <0.001
Secure 151 (100, 201) <0.001 -1.8 (-2.4, -1.3) <0.001 1.4 (1.0, 1.8) <0.001 0.4 (0.2, 0.5) <0.001 3.6 (2.8, 4.5) <0.001
Socioeconomic status quintile (ref = poorest quintile)
Poorer 64 (5, 122) 0.03 -0.4 (-1.0, 0.2) 0.20 0.3 (-0.2, 0.8) 0.24 0.2 (0.0, 0.4) 0.03 1.1 (0.2, 2.1) 0.02
Average 80 (18, 143) 0.01 -0.9 (-1.5, -0.2) 0.01 0.6 (0.1, 1.1) 0.02 0.3 (0.2, 0.5) <0.001 2.1 (1.1, 3.2) <0.001
Richer 140 (74, 206) <0.001 -2.1 (-2.8, -1.4) <0.001 1.3 (0.7, 1.9) <0.001 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) <0.001 4.3 (3.2, 5.4) <0.001
Richest 271 (197, 345) <0.001 -3.1 (-3.9, -2.3) <0.001 2.0 (1.4, 2.6) <0.001 1.1 (0.8, 1.3) <0.001 6.5 (5.3, 7.7) <0.001

Nguyen et al.

Nguyen et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:126   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-126

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