Table 6

Multi-component interventions
Study/ Location/ Type Participants Intervention Follow up Results
Jackson 1982 [31] Australia Community Quasi-experimental study with a control group Gender: all females (a)Treatment group n = 6 Weight status: 10% overweight Age (years), mean: 21.8ID, mean IQ: 38.17 (b) Control group n = 6 Age (years), mean: 23.5 ID, mean IQ :40.33 Attrition/drop out: none Duration: 14 weeks of every 2 weeks group sessions (60 min each) led by a teacher. (a) 7 sessions with the parents, 6 sessions with group members and the teacher. Diet: Advice on healthy eating diet, avoid fad diets. Activity: General advice on physical activity e.g. using stairs instead of elevator. Behaviour: self-monitoring, reward, punishment, change of rate of eating, reinforcement. Maintenance: none reported (b) No intervention 17 weeks (a) Mean weight change, kg: -5.75b
(b) Mean weight change, kg:-0.59
3 month (a) Mean weight change, kg :-6.25
(b) Mean weight change, kg: -0.59
6 month (a) Mean weight change, kg: -6.08
(b) Mean weight change, kg: +0.33
12 month (a) Mean weight change, kg: -7.33
(b) Mean weight change, kg: 0.00 Significant weight reduction of (a) across all the follow up
Harris 1984 [32] USA Community Quasi-experimental study with a comparison group Total n = 21 Weight status: not reported (a) Completers n = 10 Gender: 8 females, 2 males Age (years)a: 22.7 (6.37) ID, IQa: 52.5 (12.80) (b) Non completers: 11 Attrition/drop out: 11 Duration: 7 weekly group sessions and 1 hour booster session 26 weeks after the first session. (a) Diet: education on healthy balanced diet, distinguishing high and low calorie foods, diabetic exchange diet (ADA, 1977). Activity: 5-10 min aerobic exercise at the end of session. Behaviour: stimulus control, self monitoring, self-reinforcement, goal setting, self-contacting. Carers attended the sessions. Maintenance: none reported 7 week (a) Mean weight change, kg: -3.0 (p < 0.05)b
12 months (a) Mean weight change, kg: -0.76
(b) Mean weight change, kg: +2.39 (p < 0.05) (p < 0.05)
Ewing 2004 [33] USA Community Quasi-experimental study with a comparison group (a) participants with ID Total n = 154, final n = 92 Weight status, BMIa: 35.4 (7.0) Gender: 54.4% females Age (years)a: 39.7 (11.5) ID, IQa: 50.2 (14.3) Attrition/drop out: 18.8% (b) no ID Total n = 270, final n = 97 Weight status, BMIa: 38.4 (8.6) Gender: 84.5% females Age (years)a: 49.9 (11.48) Attrition/drop out: 30% Duration: 8 week intervention. The “HELP” intervention (Health Education Learning Program) led by health educators. 8 group sessions and 2 to 4 home visits. Diet: a home visit to develop dietary plan and do a grocery visit. Activity: a home visit to develop an exercise programme e.g. walking routes, optional brisk walk after the sessions. Behaviour: motivation to change, relapse prevention, avoidance of “automatic thinking”. Maintenance: none reported 2 months (a) Mean BMI change, kg/m2: 0b
(b) Mean BMI change, kg/m2: -0.89 No significant difference between (a) and (b)

adata are mean values (SD).

brange not reported.

Spanos et al.

Spanos et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:132   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-132

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