Table 3

Calcium intake and odds ratio for colorectal cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer
Dietary calcium Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P
Colorectal cancer
For 100 mg/day increase 0.95 0.92-0.98 <0.001 0.95 0.92-0.98 0.001 0.95 0.92-0.99 0.014
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.58 0.44-0.78 <0.001 0.61 0.45-0.82 0.001 0.63 0.44-0.91 0.014
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
>1000 mg/day 0.65 0.50-0.85 0.002 0.66 0.50-0.87 0.003 0.70 0.51-0.96 0.025
Dietary fiber <6 g/day
For 100 mg/day increase 0.97 0.94-1.01 0.174 0.98 0.95-1.02 0.411 0.96 0.92-1.01 0.093
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.78 0.54-1.12 0.174 0.86 0.59-1.24 0.411 0.69 0.44-1.06 0.093
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
>1000 mg/day 0.85 0.60-1.23 0.409 0.91 0.63-1.32 0.628 0.87 0.59-1.30 0.508
Dietary fiber > =6 g/day
For 100 mg/day increase 0.91 0.85-0.97 0.003 0.91 0.85-0.97 0.005 0.91 0.84-0.98 0.013
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.38 0.20-0.73 0.003 0.39 0.20-0.76 0.005 0.38 0.18-0.81 0.013
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
>1000 mg/day 0.54 0.33-0.87 0.011 0.54 0.33-0.88 0.013 0.48 0.27-0.85 0.012
Colon cancer
For 100 mg/day increase 0.95 0.91-0.98 0.004 0.95 0.91-0.98 0.006 0.93 0.89-0.98 0.007
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.58 0.40-0.84 0.004 0.58 0.40-0.85 0.006 0.50 0.31-0.83 0.007
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
>1000 mg/day 0.58 0.40-0.83 0.003 0.59 0.41-0.85 0.005 0.54 0.35-0.83 0.005
Dietary fiber <6 g/day
For 100 mg/day increase 0.98 0.93-1.02 0.273 0.98 0.94-1.03 0.405 0.94 0.89-0.998 0.042
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.78 0.50-1.22 0.273 0.82 0.52-1.30 0.405 0.55 0.31-0.98 0.042
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
>1000 mg/day 0.76 0.47-1.22 0.248 0.82 0.50-1.34 0.428 0.72 0.43-1.23 0.232
Dietary fiber > =6 g/day
For 100 mg/day increase 0.90 0.83-0.98 0.014 0.90 0.82-0.98 0.020 0.88 0.79-0.98 0.022
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.34 0.15-0.81 0.014 0.33 0.13-0.84 0.020 0.28 0.10-0.83 0.022
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
>1000 mg/day 0.47 0.25-0.88 0.019 0.46 0.24-0.90 0.022 0.37 0.18-0.79 0.010
Rectal cancer
For 100 mg/day increase 0.95 0.92-0.99 0.006 0.96 0.92-0.99 0.016 0.97 0.93-1.02 0.233
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.61 0.43-0.87 0.006 0.65 0.45-0.92 0.016 0.77 0.49-1.19 0.233
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
>1000 mg/day 0.72 0.52-1.00 0.053 0.73 0.52-1.02 0.064 0.85 0.58-1.25 0.414
Dietary fiber <6 g/day
For 100 mg/day increase 0.98 0.94-1.02 0.308 0.99 0.95-1.03 0.601 0.97 0.93-1.03 0.330
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.80 0.52-1.23 0.308 0.89 0.57-1.38 0.601 0.77 0.46-1.29 0.330
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
>1000 mg/day 0.96 0.62-1.48 0.844 0.99 0.63-1.54 0.951 0.95 0.59-1.53 0.826
Dietary fiber > =6 g/day
For 100 mg/day increase 0.92 0.85-0.996 0.039 0.92 0.85-1.00 0.051 0.91 0.83-1.01 0.066
For 1000 mg/day increase 0.43 0.19-0.96 0.039 0.45 0.20-1.004 0.051 0.41 0.16-1.06 0.066
<= 1000 mg/day 1 (ref) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
>1000 mg/day 0.61 0.33-1.11 0.107 0.62 0.34-1.15 0.128 0.57 0.27-1.20 0.138

Model 1 –univariable logistic regression.

Model 2 –adjusted for age, gender, education.

Model 3 –adjusted for covariates from Model 2 and fish consumption [servings/week], fruit, raw and cooked vegetable consumption [servings/day], fiber [g/day], vitamin C [mg/day], dietary iron [<=14,03 mg/day; >14,03 mg/day], alcohol consumption [g/week], adult lifetime recreational physical activity [METs-h/week], BMI [kg/m2], smoking [current, ex-smokers, non-smokers], taking mineral supplements [yes/no].

Galas et al.

Galas et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:134   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-134

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