Table 2

Socio-demographic characteristics, FFQ-derived estimates and nutritional biomarkers of participants enrolled in the validation study by sex
Characteristics Women (n =452) Men (n =470)
No. % Median [P25; P75] No. % Median [P25; P75] P-value
Age. years NS
 18-29 82 18.1 78 16.6
 30-49 193 42.7 207 44.04
 50-69 177 39.2 185 39.4
Education 0.028
 No superior diploma 230 50.9 273 58.1
 Superior diploma 222 49.1 197 41.9
Obesea 78 17.3 94 20.04 NS
Smokers 104 23.01 130 27.66 NS
Use of supplement
 Vitamin B12 3 0.66 7 1.49 NS
 Vitamin B9 9 1.91 8 1.77 NS
 Vitamin E 10 2.21 9 1.91 NS
 Vitamin D 77 17.04 34 7.23 <0.0001
 Iron 8 1.77 7 1.49 NS
 Iodine 5 1.11 7 1.49 NS
 β-carotene 5 1.11 2 0.43 NS
FFQ-estimated daily dietary intake
 Food groups
 Fruits (g/day) 145.2 [49.3; 299.2 ] 91.2 [19.6; 252.2] 0.0002
 Vegetables (g/day) 51.8 [25.1; 103.4 ] 35.9 [18.4; 72.1] <0.0001
 Fruits and vegetables (g/day) 211.8 [108.7; 383.2 ] 163.8 [67.07; 308.9 ] <0.0001
Micro-nutrients
 Vitamin B12 (μg) 4.7 [3.4; 6.3] 6 [4.5; 8.1] <0.0001
 Vitamin B9 (μg) 315.8 [246.6; 407.2] 358 [286.2; 451.4] <0.0001
 Vitamin E (mg) 12.6 [10; 16.6] 14.1 [11; 18.9] 0.0006
 Vitamin D (μg) 2.8 [1.4; 6] 2.8 [1.6; 4.8] NS
 Iron (mg) 13.4 [10.7; 16.2] 16.1 [13.5; 19.8] <0.0001
 Iodine (μg) 127 [100.3; 170.7] 146.3 [119.2; 197.6] <0.0001
 β-carotene (μg) 3818.6 [2597.6; 5464.4] 3655.4 [2334.6; 5392] 0.04
 Sodium (mg) 3399.1 [2707.4; 4090.7] 4326.68 [3418.8; 5343] <0.0001
Blood levels of biomarkers
 B12 (pg/ml) 391.8 [302.1; 530] 409.75 [326.8; 514.9] NS
 Serum folates (ng/ml) 7.8 [6.2; 10.2] 7.16 [5.6; 9.7] 0.015
 Erythrocyte folates (ng/ml) 586.7 [509.6; 676.7] 589 [503; 705.4] NS
 25-OH Vitamine D (ng/ml) 22.1 [15.4; 29.1] 17.6 [11.9; 25] <0.0001
 α-tocopherol (mg/L) 12.8 [10.8; 15.4] 12.4 [10.4; 14.9] NS
 Iron (μmol/L) 17.6 [13.7; 22] 19.1 [15.3; 23.9] 0.0004
 Ferritin (ng/ml) 69.9 [37.7; 129.2] 199.1 [121.2; 326.5] <0.0001
 Transferrin (g/L) 2.8 [2.5; 3.1] 2.6 [2.4; 2.9] <0.0001
 Iode/Creatinine ratio (μg/g creat) 70 [51; 105] 72 [53; 97] NS
 Urine sodium (mmol/L) 113 [81; 154] 134 [100; 166.1] <0.0001
 β-carotene (mg/L) 0.23 [0.12; 0.37] 0.15 [0.08; 0.24] <0.0001

aObesity was defined as a body mass index (weight(kg)/height(m)2) ≥ 30.

NS: Not significant.

Sauvageot et al.

Sauvageot et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:143   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-143

Open Data