Table 2

Circulating concentrations of biomarkers by quartiles of different dietary protein intakea
Total protein intake Animal protein intake Plant protein intake
Characteristics Q1 Q4 P Q1 Q4 P Q1 Q4 P
n 254 253 254 253 254 253
Homocysteine, μmol/L 14.4 ± 6.1 16.7 ± 7.8 <0.001 13.3 ± 5.5 17.9 ± 8.3 <0.001 17.1 ± 7.7 13.5 ± 5.1 <0.001
Cysteine, μmol/L 245 ± 44 252 ± 51 0.01 244 ± 44 249 ± 52 0.06 251 ± 49 247 ± 48 0.54
Folate, nmol/L 9.84 ± 3.27 9.85 ± 3.65 0.96 10.16 ± 3.61 9.38 ± 3.39 0.08 9.22 ± 3.21 10.46 ± 3.85 0.001
PLP, nmol/L 35.7 ± 9.76 36.2 ± 9.87 0.30 36.6 ± 9.4 35.9 ± 9.3 0.23 34.9 ± 9.3 38.5 ± 9.8 0.001
Vitamin B12, pmol/L 311 ± 66 307 ± 70 0.58 319 ± 72 302 ± 69 0.20 298 ± 64 326 ± 73 <0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.87 ± 1.55 1.77 ± 1.08 0.55 1.99 ± 1.61 1.84 ± 1.20 0.17 1.89 ± 1.34 1.79 ± 1.05 0.67
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.66 ± 1.25 4.72 ± 0.98 0.73 4.68 ± 1.27 4.73 ± 1.00 0.56 4.62 ± 1.17 4.75 ± 1.07 0.38
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 2.96 ± 1.08 2.94 ± 0.90 0.91 2.97 ± 1.08 2.89 ± 0.89 0.46 2.92 ± 1.04 3.04 ± 0.92 0.53
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.06 ± 0.29 1.12 ± 0.31 0.10 1.08 ± 0.30 1.12 ± 0.31 0.12 1.04 ± 0.29 1.10 ± 0.28 0.15
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L 6.50 ± 3.34 6.34 ± 2.55 0.76 6.54 ± 3.20 6.47 ± 2.64 0.54 6.61 ± 3.03 6.52 ± 2.77 0.41
Creatinine, μmol/L 90.5 ± 53.8 81.4 ± 28.6 0.01 90.4 ± 56.0 81.1 ± 29.2 0.11 93.6 ± 57.4 83.0 ± 35.7 0.03

aValues are mean ± SD. The means were evaluated by ANCOVA with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, and total fat intake.

Xiao et al.

Xiao et al. Nutrition Journal 2013 12:144   doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-144

Open Data